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Immunosuppression by monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in patients with pancreatic ductal carcinoma is orchestrated by STAT3

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly devastating disease with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 8%. New evidence indicates that PDAC cells release pro-inflammatory metabolites that induce a marked alteration of normal hematopoiesis, favoring the expansion and...

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A PD-L2-based immune marker signature helps to predict survival in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is a key immune checkpoint that regulates peripheral tolerance and protects against autoimmunity. Programmed death ligand-2 (PD-L2) is a less studied ligand to PD-1 and has yet to be fully explored, especially in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The...

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Gut microbiome affects the response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

Checkpoint blockade immunotherapy targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) has recently shown promising efficacy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the factors affecting and predicting the response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in HCC are still unclear. The authors report the...

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Response to targeted therapy or chemotherapy following immunotherapy in patients with gastrointestinal cancers - a case series

In non-small cell lung cancer, response rates to chemotherapy given after immune checkpoint inhibitors have been reported to be higher compared to response rates to chemotherapy given before immune checkpoint inhibitors. However, this phenomenon has not been reported in patients with...

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Anti-pancreatic tumor efficacy of a Listeria-based, Annexin A2-targeting immunotherapy in combination with anti-PD-1 antibodies

Annexin A2 (ANXA2) is a pro-metastasis protein, previously identified as a relevant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) antigen that is expressed by a GM-CSF-secreting allogenic whole pancreatic tumor cell vaccine (GVAX) to induce an anti-ANXA2 antibody response in patients with PDAC. The...

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Two cases of intrahepatic cholangiocellular carcinoma with high insertion-deletion ratios that achieved a complete response following chemotherapy combined with PD-1 blockade

Insertion–deletion mutations (indels) may generate more tumour-specific neoantigens with high affinity to major histocompatibility complex class I. A high indel ratio is also related to a good response to programmed death-1 (PD-1) checkpoint blockade in melanoma and renal cell carcinoma. However...

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STING agonist inflames the pancreatic cancer immune microenvironment and reduces tumor burden in mouse models

Pancreatic cancer is characterized by an immune suppressive stromal reaction that creates a barrier to therapy. A murine transgenic pancreatic cancer cell line that recapitulates human disease was used to test whether a STimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) agonist could reignite...

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Increased intratumoral mast cells foster immune suppression and gastric cancer progression through TNF-α-PD-L1 pathway

Mast cells are prominent components of solid tumors and exhibit distinct phenotypes in different tumor microenvironments. However, the nature, regulation, function, and clinical relevance of mast cells in human gastric cancer (GC) are presently unknown. The authors conclude that their results...