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Compound kushen injection relieves tumor-associated macrophage-mediated immunosuppression through TNFR1 and sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma to sorafenib

There is an urgent need for effective treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunotherapy is promising especially when combined with traditional therapies. This study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory function of an approved Chinese medicine formula, compound kushen injection ...


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Pre-existing inflammatory immune microenvironment predicts the clinical response of vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions to therapeutic HPV16 vaccination

Vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (vHSIL) is predominantly induced by high-risk human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16). In two independent trials, therapeutic vaccination against the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins resulted in objective partial and complete responses (PRs/CRs) in...



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A case of dual-mechanism immune-related anaemia in a patient with metastatic melanoma treated with nivolumab and ipilimumab

The combination of the immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) ipilimumab and nivolumab is a mainstay of treatment for selected patients with metastatic melanoma. This combination also results in more frequent immune-related adverse events (irAEs) than either ICI alone. These irAEs can be severe and...


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Increased antitumor efficacy of PD-1-deficient melanoma-specific human lymphocytes

Genome editing offers unique perspectives for optimizing the functional properties of T cells for adoptive cell transfer purposes. So far, PDCD1 editing has been successfully tested mainly in chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells and human primary T cells. Nonetheless, for patients with...


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Regulatory T-cell depletion in the setting of autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: pilot study

Progression after high-dose melphalan with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in multiple myeloma (MM) may be due in part to immune dysfunction. Regulatory T (Treg) cells reconstitute rapidly after ASCT and inhibit immune responses against myeloma cells. The authors performed a...


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A phase Ib study of utomilumab (PF-05082566) in combination with mogamulizumab in patients with advanced solid tumors

Expressed on activated T and natural killer cells, 4-1BB/CD137 is a costimulatory receptor that signals a series of events resulting in cytokine secretion and enhanced effector function. Targeting 4-1BB/CD137 with agonist antibodies has been associated with tumor reduction and antitumor immunity...


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PD1Hi CD8+ T cells correlate with exhausted signature and poor clinical outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma

CD8 + T cells differentiate into exhausted status within tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which constitutes a solid barrier to effective anti-tumor immunity. A detailed characterization of exhausted T cells and their prognostic value in HCC is lacking. The authors current...


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Expanding CAR T cells in human platelet lysate renders T cells with in vivo longevity

Pre-clinical and clinical studies have shown that the infusion of CAR T cells with a naive-like (T N ) and central memory (T CM ) phenotype is associated with prolonged in vivo T cell persistence and superior anti-tumor effects. To optimize the maintenance of such populations during the in...


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Bi- and tri-valent T cell engagers deplete tumour-associated macrophages in cancer patient samples

Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) are often implicated in cancer progression but can also exert anti-tumour activities. Selective eradication of cancer-promoting (M2-like) TAM subsets is a highly sought-after goal. Here, the authors have devised a novel strategy to achieve selective TAM...