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Monalizumab: inhibiting the novel immune checkpoint NKG2A

The implementation of immune checkpoint inhibitors to the oncology clinic signified a new era in cancer treatment. After the first indication of melanoma, an increasing list of additional cancer types are now treated with immune system targeting antibodies to PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4, alleviating...


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CAR-T cell therapy: a potential new strategy against prostate cancer

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the main causes of cancer-related death in men. In the present immunotherapy era , several immunotherapeutic agents have been evaluated in PCa with poor results, possibly due to its low mutational burden. The recent development of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR...


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Adenosine mediates functional and metabolic suppression of peripheral and tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells

Several mechanisms are present in the tumor microenvironment (TME) to impair cytotoxic T cell responses potentially able to control tumor growth. Among these, the accumulation of adenosine (Ado) contributes to tumor progression and represents a promising immunotherapeutic target. Ado has been...


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Late-differentiated effector neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells are enriched in peripheral blood of non-small cell lung carcinoma patients responding to atezolizumab treatment

There is strong evidence that immunotherapy-mediated tumor rejection can be driven by tumor-specific CD8+ T cells reinvigorated to recognize neoantigens derived from tumor somatic mutations. Thus, the frequencies or characteristics of tumor-reactive, mutation-specific CD8+ T cells could be used...


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Carboxyamidotriazole combined with IDO1-Kyn-AhR pathway inhibitors profoundly enhances cancer immunotherapy

Cancer immunotherapy has generated significant excitement, mainly as a result of the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors. The blockade of PD-1 or its ligand with antibodies has resulted in impressive clinical efficacy. However, a subset of patients does not respond to biologic...


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A TIGIT-based chimeric co-stimulatory switch receptor improves T-cell anti-tumor function

Tumors can employ different mechanisms to evade immune surveillance and function. Overexpression of co-inhibitory ligands that bind to checkpoint molecules on the surface of T-cells can greatly impair the function of latter. TIGIT (T cell immunoreceptor with Ig and ITIM domains) is such a co...


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High numbers of activated helper T cells are associated with better clinical outcome in early stage vulvar cancer, irrespective of HPV or p53 status

Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) has been suggested to consist of three subtypes; HPV-positive, HPV-negative mutated TP53 or HPV-negative TP53 wildtype, with different clinical courses. To analyze the immune infiltrate in these molecular subtypes and its impact on clinical outcome,...


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A PD-L2-based immune marker signature helps to predict survival in resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is a key immune checkpoint that regulates peripheral tolerance and protects against autoimmunity. Programmed death ligand-2 (PD-L2) is a less studied ligand to PD-1 and has yet to be fully explored, especially in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The...


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Cancer targeting by TCR gene-engineered T cells directed against Kita-Kyushu Lung Cancer Antigen-1

T cell receptor (TCR) gene-engineered T cells have shown promise in the treatment of melanoma and synovial cell sarcoma, but their application to epithelial cancers has been limited. The identification of novel therapeutic TCRs for the targeting of these tumors is important for the development...


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Isolation of T cell receptor specifically reactive with autologous tumour cells from tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and construction of T cell receptor engineered T cells for esophageal squamouscell

T cell receptor-engineered T cells (TCR-Ts) therapy is a promising cancer treatment strategy. Nowadays, most studies focused on identification of high-avidity T cell receptors (TCRs) directed against neoantigens derived from somatic mutations. However, few neoantigens per patient are able to...