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Phase 2 study of pembrolizumab in patients with advanced rare cancers

Patients with advanced rare cancers have poor prognosis and few treatment options. As immunotherapy is effective across multiple cancer types, we aimed to assess pembrolizumab (programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor) in patients with advanced rare cancers. In this open-label, phase 2 trial,...



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Molecular and immunological features of a prolonged exceptional responder with malignant pleural mesothelioma treated initially and rechallenged with pembrolizumab

This case represents an exceptional response to pembrolizumab in a patient with epithelioid mesothelioma with a further response on rechallenge. A 77-year-old woman with advanced epithelioid mesothelioma extensively pretreated with chemotherapy demonstrated a prolonged response of 45 months to...


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Randomized phase II study of the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor acalabrutinib, alone or with pembrolizumab in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

The immunosuppressive desmoplastic stroma of pancreatic cancer represents a major hurdle to developing an effective immune response. Preclinical studies in pancreatic cancer have demonstrated promising anti-tumor activity with Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibition combined with programmed cell...


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Phase II study of pembrolizumab and capecitabine for triple negative and hormone receptor-positive, HER2−negative endocrine-refractory metastatic breast cancer

Response rates to single agent immune checkpoint blockade in unselected pretreated HER2−negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are low. However, they may be augmented when combined with chemotherapy. The authors conducted a single-arm, phase II study of patients with triple negative (TN) or...



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Tumor microenvironment-derived S100A8/A9 is a novel prognostic biomarker for advanced melanoma patients and during immunotherapy with anti-PD-1 antibodies

Predicting metastasis in melanoma patients is important for disease management and could help to identify those who might benefit from adjuvant treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the tumor microenvironment-derived protein S100A8/A9 qualifies as prognostic marker for...


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Multiple nivolumab-induced CNS demyelination with spontaneous resolution in an asymptomatic metastatic melanoma patient

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPis) have revolutionised the treatment of melanoma by significantly increasing survival rates and disease control. However, ICPis can have specific immune-related adverse events, including rare but severe neurological toxicity. The authors report the first case of...


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Immunotherapy response evaluation with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in advanced HCC

Currently, there are no imaging predictors of immunotherapy outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study aim was to determine if stiffness changes measured by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) can be a predictor of immunotherapy response in patients with advanced HCC. The authors...


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Radiation myelitis after pembrolizumab administration, with favorable clinical evolution and safe rechallenge: a case report and review of the literature

Neurologic complications such as myelitis are very rare but extremely deleterious adverse effects of both immunotherapy and radiotherapy. Many recent studies have focused on the possible synergy of these two treatment modalities due to their potential to enhance each other’s immunomodulatory...