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Targeting interferon signaling and CTLA-4 enhance the therapeutic efficacy of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in preclinical model of HPV+ oral cancer

The US is experiencing an epidemic of HPV + oropharyngeal cancers (OPC), the rates and burden of which now exceed that for cervical cancer. Immunotherapy targeting programmed death 1 (PD-1) on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and/or its ligand PD-L1 on tumor cells, which was effective in...


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Phase II clinical trial of pembrolizumab efficacy and safety in advanced adrenocortical carcinoma

Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy without good treatment options. There are limited data about the use of immunotherapy in ACC. The authors investigated the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab in patients with metastatic ACC. They concluded that single-agent pembrolizumab has...


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Closed system RT-qPCR as a potential companion diagnostic test for immunotherapy outcome in metastatic melanoma

In melanoma, there is no companion diagnostic test to predict response to programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) axis immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy. In the adjuvant setting, only one in five patients may benefit from ICI, so a biomarker is needed to select those that may or may not benefit....


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Tertiary lymphoid organs in the inflammatory myopathy associated with PD-1 inhibitors

Programmed cell death 1 inhibitors have revolutionized therapy for cancer by their outstanding effectiveness. However, they may cause adverse effects, among which inflammatory myopathy is one of the most disabling. To elucidate its mechanism, the authors analysed muscle biopsies and compared...


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Clinical and immune profiling for cancer of unknown primary site

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) confer a survival benefit in many cancer types. Given that the survival outcome for cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) remains poor, the authors investigated the potential of CUP for immunotherapy. The authors conclude that the survival outcome of CUP...


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Unchecked immunity: a unique case of sequential immune-related adverse events with Pembrolizumab

The authors present a case of sequential immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in a patient with metastatic melanoma treated with single-agent anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) therapy, pembrolizumab. Although numerous cases of irAEs have been reported, sequential multi-organ involvement,...


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Late-differentiated effector neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells are enriched in peripheral blood of non-small cell lung carcinoma patients responding to atezolizumab treatment

There is strong evidence that immunotherapy-mediated tumor rejection can be driven by tumor-specific CD8+ T cells reinvigorated to recognize neoantigens derived from tumor somatic mutations. Thus, the frequencies or characteristics of tumor-reactive, mutation-specific CD8+ T cells could be used...


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Niclosamide, an antihelmintic drug, enhances efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockade in non-small cell lung cancer

PD-1/PD-L1 blockade has received approval for clinical application due to its encouraging benefit with improving prognosis in selected populations. Unfortunately, the response to immunotherapy for many patients remains unsatisfactory. It remains a great challenge to generate potential...


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Anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD1) immunotherapy induced autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type II (APS-2): a case report and review of the literature

Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type II (APS-2) is a rare constellation of autoimmune hypoadrenalism, thyroid dysfunction and/or type 1 diabetes (T1DM), usually occurring in the 3rd or 4th decades and associated with a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR3 or DR4 serotype. The authors detail the...


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Impact of antibiotic therapy on the development and response to treatment of immune checkpoint inhibitor-mediated diarrhea and colitis

The gut microbiome impacts the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy and the development of ICI-mediated diarrhea and / or colitis (IMDC). Antibiotic therapy,especially that with anaerobic activity, has profound effects on the gut microbiome. In this study, the authors sought...