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Distinctive germline expression of class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and DRB1 heterozygosis predict the outcome of patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving PD-1/PD-L1 immune che

Nivolumab is a human monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) able to rescue quiescent tumor infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) restoring their ability to kill target cells expressing specific tumor antigen-derived epitope peptides bound to homologue human...


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Combined DLL3-targeted bispecific antibody with PD-1 inhibition is efficient to suppress small cell lung cancer growth

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for 15% of lung cancers, and the primary treatment of this malignancy is chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Delta-like 3 (DLL3) is an attractive target for SCLC immunotherapy since its expression is highly restricted to SCLC with a neglectable appearance on...


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Early tumor shrinkage identifies long-term disease control and survival in patients with lung cancer treated with atezolizumab

Preliminary evidence indicates that early tumor shrinkage (ETS) following immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) initiation may be associated with survival outcomes in patients with advanced melanoma. ETS has not been explored as a biomarker of survival outcomes or patient-reported outcomes in...


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Identification of PD1-mediated regulation of antitumor antigen response in patients with NSCLC using the trans vivo DTH assay

Emerging evidence has shown a role for tumor antigen-specific regulation in cancer. Identifying individuals with pre-existing regulatory responses may be key to understand those who are more likely to respond to Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) or PD-1 Ligand 1 (PD-L1) checkpoint blockade. The authors...


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Dual but not single PD-1 or TIM-3 blockade enhances oncolytic virotherapy in refractory lung cancer

Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade therapy fails in the majority of patients with cancer. Oncolytic viruses represent a new class of therapeutic agents, yet the therapeutic efficacy is still disappointing. Moreover, intratumoral injection of viruses is the...


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Granzyme B is correlated with clinical outcome after PD-1 blockade in patients with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer

A minority of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) benefit from treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Ineffective effector function of activated T and NK cells may lead to reduced tumor cell death, even when these activated effector cells are released from...


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COVID-19 and lung cancer: risks, mechanisms and treatment interactions

Cases of the 2019 novel coronavirus also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue to rise worldwide. To date, there is no effective treatment. Clinical management is largely symptomatic, with organ support in intensive care for critically ill patients. The...


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Neutrophil expansion defines an immunoinhibitory peripheral and intratumoral inflammatory milieu in resected non-small cell lung cancer: a descriptive analysis of a prospectively immunoprofiled cohor

The biological underpinnings of the prognostic and predictive significance of a relative neutrophilia in patients with non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) are undefined. The authors sought to comprehensively examine the relationships between circulating and intratumoral neutrophil populations and...


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T cell receptor repertoire characteristics both before and following immunotherapy correlate with clinical response in mesothelioma

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly lethal malignancy in need for new treatment options. Although immunotherapies have been shown to boost a tumor-specific immune response, not all patients respond and prognostic biomarkers are scarce. In this study, the authors determined the...


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Phase II study of α-galactosylceramide-pulsed antigen-presenting cells in patients with advanced or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells produce copious amounts of cytokines in response to specific glycolipid antigens such as α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) presented by CD1d-expressing antigen-presenting cells (APCs), thus orchestrating other immune cells to fight tumors. Because of their...