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ATR inhibitor AZD6738 enhances the antitumor activity of radiotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors by potentiating the tumor immune microenvironment in hepatocellular carcinoma

Radioimmunotherapy has a promising antitumor effect in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), depending on the regulatory effect of radiotherapy on tumor immune microenvironment. Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage repair (DDR) pathway activation leads to the inhibition of immune...


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Analytical validation of the Immunoscore and its associated prognostic value in patients with colon cancer

New and fully validated tests need to be brought into clinical practice to improve the estimation of recurrence risk in patients with colon cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the analytical performances of the Immunoscore (IS) and show its contribution to prognosis prediction. The...


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The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer statement on best practices for multiplex immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) staining and validation

The interaction between the immune system and tumor cells is an important feature for the prognosis and treatment of cancer. Multiplex immunohistochemistry (mIHC) and multiplex immunofluorescence (mIF) analyses are emerging technologies that can be used to help quantify immune cell subsets,...


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Oncogenic states dictate the prognostic and predictive connotations of intratumoral immune response

An immune active cancer phenotype typified by a T helper 1 (Th-1) immune response has been associated with increased responsiveness to immunotherapy and favorable prognosis in some but not all cancer types. The reason of this differential prognostic connotation remains unknown. The authors state...


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Incomplete Freund’s adjuvant reduces arginase and enhances Th1 dominance, TLR signaling and CD40 ligand expression in the vaccine site microenvironment

Immunogenicity of cancer vaccines is impacted by adjuvants and schedule, but systematic assessments of their effects have not been performed. Montanide ISA-51, an incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA), is used in many vaccine trials, but concerns have been raised about negative effects in murine...


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Overcoming hypoxia-induced functional suppression of NK cells

Natural killer (NK) cells are immune cells capable of killing virally infected cells and tumor cells without the need for antigen stimulation. Tumors, however, can create a suppressive microenvironment that decreases NK function. A feature of many tumors is hypoxia (low oxygen perfusion), which...


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Decrease in tumor content assessed in biopsies is associated with improved treatment outcome response to pembrolizumab in patients with rare tumors

Decreased tumor content (TC) in resection specimens after neoadjuvant therapy is used to predict prognosis. The authors investigated whether TC assessed in biopsy specimens or the shift in TC from baseline to on-treatment can be used accordingly to predict response in patients with rare tumors...


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Immune involvement of the contralateral hemisphere in a glioblastoma mouse model

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadliest form of brain cancer in adults. Standard treatment, consisting of surgery and radiochemotherapy, only provides a modest survival benefit and is incapable of combating infiltrating GBM cells in other parts of the brain. New therapies in clinical...


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Neoadjuvant PROSTVAC prior to radical prostatectomy enhances T-cell infiltration into the tumor immune microenvironment in men with prostate cancer

Clinical trials have shown the ability of therapeutic vaccines to generate immune responses to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). What is relatively less known is if this translates into immune-cell (IC) infiltration into the tumor microenvironment. This study examined whether neoadjuvant...


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Melanoma-specific bcl-2 promotes a protumoral M2-like phenotype by tumor-associated macrophages

A bidirectional crosstalk between tumor cells and the surrounding microenvironment contributes to tumor progression and response to therapy. The authors previous studies have demonstrated that bcl-2 affects melanoma progression and regulates the tumor microenvironment. The aim of this study was...