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The role of PD-L1 expression as a predictive biomarker: an analysis of all US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals of immune checkpoint inhibitors

The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors has changed the treatment paradigm for advanced cancers across many tumor types. Despite encouraging and sometimes durable responses in a subset of patients, most patients do not respond. Tumors have adopted the PD-1/PD-L1 axis for immune escape to...


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Systemic and local immunity following adoptive transfer of NY-ESO-1 SPEAR T cells in synovial sarcoma

Gene-modified autologous T cells expressing NY-ESO-1 c259 , an affinity-enhanced T-cell receptor (TCR) reactive against the NY-ESO-1-specific HLA-A*02-restricted peptide SLLMWITQC (NY-ESO-1 SPEAR T-cells; GSK 794), have demonstrated clinical activity in patients with advanced synovial sarcoma ...


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Tumor immune microenvironment and genomic evolution in a patient with metastatic triple negative breast cancer and a complete response to atezolizumab

Metastatic TNBC (mTNBC) has a poor prognosis and few treatment options. The anti-PD-L1 antibody atezolizumab demonstrated clinical activity in mTNBC patients with PD-L1-positive tumor-infiltrating immune cells. The current study describes the tumor immune microenvironment (TiME) and genomic...


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Immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation has clinical impact in DLBCL and potential implications for immune checkpoint blockade and neoantigen-based immunotherapies

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) harbors somatic hypermutation (SHM) in the immunoglobulin heavy chain and light chain variable region genes, IGHV and IGK/LV. Recent studies have revealed that IGV SHM creates neoantigens that activate T-cell responses against B-cell lymphoma. The authors...


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Comprehensive immune profiling and immune-monitoring using body fluid of patients with metastatic gastric cancer

The aim of this study is to profile the cytokines and immune cells of body fluid from metastatic gastric cancer (mGC), and evaluate the potential role as a prognostic factor and the feasibility as a predictive biomarker or monitoring source for immune checkpoint inhibitor. The authors conclude...


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Metastatic breast cancers have reduced immune cell recruitment but harbor increased macrophages relative to their matched primary tumors

The interplay between the immune system and tumor progression is well recognized. However, current human breast cancer immunophenotyping studies are mostly focused on primary tumors with metastatic breast cancer lesions remaining largely understudied. To address this gap, the authors examined...


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Immunotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma: the complex interface between inflammation, fibrosis, and the immune response

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and confers a poor prognosis. Beyond standard systemic therapy with multikinase inhibitors, recent studies demonstrate the potential for robust and durable responses from immune checkpoint inhibition in subsets...


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Tumor-infiltrating B cells affect the progression of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma via cell-to-cell interactions with CD8+ T cells

Standard treatment of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is associated with high morbidity, whereas immunotherapeutic approaches using PD-1:PD-L1 checkpoint blockade only show moderate response rates in OPSCC patients. Therefore, a better stratification of patients and the development...


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TLR9 acts as a sensor for tumor-released DNA to modulate anti-tumor immunity after chemotherapy

The tumor microenvironment exists in a state of dynamic equilibrium, in which a balance of agonist and antagonist signals govern the anti-tumor immune responses. Previous studies have shown that chemotherapy could shift this balance in favor of agonistic signals for the anti-tumor immune...


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Adenosine mediates functional and metabolic suppression of peripheral and tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells

Several mechanisms are present in the tumor microenvironment (TME) to impair cytotoxic T cell responses potentially able to control tumor growth. Among these, the accumulation of adenosine (Ado) contributes to tumor progression and represents a promising immunotherapeutic target. Ado has been...