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Oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus–based cellular vaccine improves triple-negative breast cancer outcome by enhancing natural killer and CD8+ T-cell functionality

There are very limited and often ineffective treatment options for patients with poor prognosis (chemoresistant and late-stage/metastatic) TNBC. Given the importance of activating TILs in the immunosuppressive TNBC microenvironment and the high therapeutic potential of immunogenic cancer...


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Compound kushen injection relieves tumor-associated macrophage-mediated immunosuppression through TNFR1 and sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma to sorafenib

There is an urgent need for effective treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunotherapy is promising especially when combined with traditional therapies. This study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory function of an approved Chinese medicine formula, compound kushen injection ...


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Pre-existing inflammatory immune microenvironment predicts the clinical response of vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions to therapeutic HPV16 vaccination

Vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (vHSIL) is predominantly induced by high-risk human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16). In two independent trials, therapeutic vaccination against the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins resulted in objective partial and complete responses (PRs/CRs) in...


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Molecular and immunological features of a prolonged exceptional responder with malignant pleural mesothelioma treated initially and rechallenged with pembrolizumab

This case represents an exceptional response to pembrolizumab in a patient with epithelioid mesothelioma with a further response on rechallenge. A 77-year-old woman with advanced epithelioid mesothelioma extensively pretreated with chemotherapy demonstrated a prolonged response of 45 months to...


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Randomized phase II study of the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor acalabrutinib, alone or with pembrolizumab in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

The immunosuppressive desmoplastic stroma of pancreatic cancer represents a major hurdle to developing an effective immune response. Preclinical studies in pancreatic cancer have demonstrated promising anti-tumor activity with Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibition combined with programmed cell...


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Novel, genetically induced mouse model that recapitulates the histological morphology and immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment of metastatic peritoneal carcinomatosis

Peritoneal carcinomatosis is a hallmark of advanced peritoneal tumor progression, particularly for tubal/ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs). Patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis have poor survival rates and are difficult to treat clinically due to widespread tumor dissemination in...


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Repurposing infectious disease vaccines for intratumoral immunotherapy

Intratumoral delivery of viruses and virus-associated molecular patterns can achieve antitumor effects that are largely mediated by the elicitation or potentiation of immune responses against the malignancy. Attenuated vaccines are approved and marketed as good manufacturing practice (GMP)...


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Dual targeting of TGF-β and PD-L1 via a bifunctional anti-PD-L1/TGF-βRII agent: status of preclinical and clinical advances

A number of preclinical studies have shown bintrafusp alfa capable of (1) preventing or reverting TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human carcinoma cells; this alteration in tumor cell plasticity was shown to render human tumor cells more susceptible to immune-mediated attack as...


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Interferon gamma inhibits CXCL8–CXCR2 axis mediated tumor-associated macrophages tumor trafficking and enhances anti-PD1 efficacy in pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a common malignancy of the digestive system and is characterized by poor prognosis and early metastasis. Tumor immune escape plays an important role in PC progression. Programmed death 1 (PD1) blockade therapy is a promising treatment for patients with PC, but is yet to...


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Oncolytic adenovirus shapes the ovarian tumor microenvironment for potent tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte tumor reactivity

Ovarian cancers often contain significant numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) that can be readily harnessed for adoptive T-cell therapy (ACT). However, the immunosuppressive ovarian tumor microenvironment and lack of tumor reactivity in TILs can limit the effectiveness of the...