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On the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with viral infections including COVID-19

The present review summarizes up-to-date evidence addressing the frequently discussed clinical controversies regarding the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in cancer patients with viral infections, including AIDS, hepatitis B and C, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, influenza...


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Nivolumab-induced synovitis is characterized by florid T cell infiltration and rapid resolution with synovial biopsy-guided therapy

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are associated with rheumatic and musculoskeletal immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in 5%–20% of patients. Currently, patients refractory to corticosteroids and conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARD) are treated with biological DMARDs ...


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Reintroduction of immune-checkpoint inhibitors after immune-related meningitis: a case series of melanoma patients

Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 and programmed cell death ligand-1) are associated with several immune-related neurological disorders. Cases of meningitis related to ICIs are poorly described in literature and probably underestimated....


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Immune Effector Cell-Related Adverse Events Guideline

SITC Cancer Immunotherapy Guidelines are a collection of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) developed by multi-disciplinary panels of experts who draw from their own practical experience as well as evidence in the published literature and clinical trial data to develop evidence- and consensus...


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Immune-related (IR)-pneumonitis during the COVID-19 pandemic: multidisciplinary recommendations for diagnosis and management

Immune-related (IR)-pneumonitis is a rare and potentially fatal toxicity of anti-PD(L)1 immunotherapy. Expert guidelines for the diagnosis and management of IR-pneumonitis include multidisciplinary input from medical oncology, pulmonary medicine, infectious disease, and radiology specialists....


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Combination checkpoint blockade for metastatic cutaneous malignancies in kidney transplant recipients

Solid organ transplant recipients have a significantly higher risk of malignancies compared with the general population. There is limited data surrounding the efficacy of combination immunotherapy in solid organ transplant recipients, as these patients were excluded from seminal trials due to...



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41BB-based and CD28-based CD123-redirected T-cells ablate human normal hematopoiesis in vivo

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematopoietic malignancy which is biologically, phenotypically and genetically very heterogeneous. Outcome of patients with AML remains dismal, highlighting the need for improved, less toxic therapies. Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CART) immunotherapies for...


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Rechallenge patients with immune checkpoint inhibitors following severe immune-related adverse events: review of the literature and suggested prophylactic strategy

Patients with cancer who developed severe, grade 3 or 4 immune-related adverse events (irAEs) during therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors are at risk for developing severe toxicities again on rechallenge with checkpoint inhibitors. Consequently, medical oncologists and multidisciplinary...


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Tocilizumab, but not dexamethasone, prevents CRS without affecting antitumor activity of bispecific antibodies

Bispecific antibodies (bsAb) and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells allow for antibody guided recruitment of T cells against tumors. Both are successfully used for treatment of CD19 expressing leukemias, but may cause cytokine release syndrome (CRS) as a major dose-limiting side effect. For...