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High dose-rate brachytherapy of localized prostate cancer converts tumors from cold to hot

Prostate cancer (PCa) has a profoundly immunosuppressive microenvironment and is commonly immune excluded with few infiltrative lymphocytes and low levels of immune activation. High-dose radiation has been demonstrated to stimulate the immune system in various human solid tumors. The authors...

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A phase II single-arm study of pembrolizumab with enzalutamide in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing on enzalutamide alone

Checkpoint inhibitors can induce profound anticancer responses, but programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) inhibition monotherapy has shown minimal activity in prostate cancer. A published report showed that men with prostate cancer who were resistant to the second-generation androgen receptor...

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Combination immunotherapy induces distinct T-cell repertoire responses when administered to patients with different malignancies

CTLA-4 blockade with ipilimumab is Food and Drug Administration-approved for melanoma as a monotherapy and has been shown to modulate the circulating T-cell repertoire. The authors have previously reported clinical trials combining CTLA-4 blockade with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating...

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Neoadjuvant PROSTVAC prior to radical prostatectomy enhances T-cell infiltration into the tumor immune microenvironment in men with prostate cancer

Clinical trials have shown the ability of therapeutic vaccines to generate immune responses to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). What is relatively less known is if this translates into immune-cell (IC) infiltration into the tumor microenvironment. This study examined whether neoadjuvant...

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NF-κB p50-deficient immature myeloid cell (p50-IMC) adoptive transfer slows the growth of murine prostate and pancreatic ductal carcinoma

Macrophages and dendritic cells lacking the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B p50 are skewed toward a proinflammatory phenotype, with increased cytokine expression and enhanced T cell activation; additionally, murine melanoma, fibrosarcoma, colon carcinoma, and glioblastoma grow slower...

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Blood-derived dendritic cell vaccinations induce immune responses that correlate with clinical outcome in patients with chemo-naive castration-resistant prostate cancer

Clinical benefit of cellular immunotherapy has been shown in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) . The authors investigated the immunological response and clinical outcome of vaccination with blood-derived CD1c + myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs; cDC2) and plasmacytoid...

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Distinct tumor microenvironments of lytic and blastic bone metastases in prostate cancer patients

The most common metastatic lesions of prostate cancer are in bone and can be classified into three distinct pathology subtypes: lytic, blastic, and an indeterminate mixture of both. The authors investigated a cohort of decalcified formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) patient specimens...

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Immunogenicity of prostate cancer is augmented by BET bromodomain inhibition

Prostate cancer responds poorly to current immunotherapies. Epigenetic therapies such as BET Bromodomain inhibition can change the transcriptome of tumor cells, possibly making them more immunogenic and thus susceptible to immune targeting. Here, the authors show that targeting BET bromodomains...