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A recombinant oncolytic Newcastle virus expressing MIP-3α promotes systemic antitumor immunity

The oncolytic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is inherently able to trigger the lysis of tumor cells and induce the immunogenic cell death (ICD) of tumor cells and is also an excellent gene-engineering vector. The macrophage inflammatory protein-3α (MIP-3α) is a specific chemokine for dendritic...

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Combining BRAF inhibition with oncolytic herpes simplex virus enhances the immune-mediated antitumor therapy of BRAF-mutant thyroid cancer

The aggressive clinical behavior of poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers (PDTC and ATC) has proven challenging to treat, and survival beyond a few months from diagnosis is rare. Although 30%–60% of these tumors contain mutations in the BRAF gene, inhibitors designed...

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Relaxin-expressing oncolytic adenovirus induces remodeling of physical and immunological aspects of cold tumor to potentiate PD-1 blockade

Currently, several antibody (Ab)-based therapies have shown excellent therapeutic effects in the clinic. Nonetheless, Ab penetration into tumor tissues is limited due to abnormal vasculature, tumor interstitial pressure, and excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation, thus demanding novel...

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Dual but not single PD-1 or TIM-3 blockade enhances oncolytic virotherapy in refractory lung cancer

Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade therapy fails in the majority of patients with cancer. Oncolytic viruses represent a new class of therapeutic agents, yet the therapeutic efficacy is still disappointing. Moreover, intratumoral injection of viruses is the...

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Temozolomide antagonizes oncolytic immunovirotherapy in glioblastoma

Temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy is a current standard of care for glioblastoma (GBM), however it has only extended overall survival by a few months. Because it also modulates the immune system, both beneficially and negatively, understanding how TMZ interacts with immunotherapeutics is important...

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A new oncolytic Vaccinia virus augments antitumor immune responses to prevent tumor recurrence and metastasis after surgery

Local recurrence and remote metastasis are major challenges to overcome in order to improve the survival of patients with cancer after surgery. Oncolytic viruses are a particularly attractive option for prevention of postsurgical disease as they offer a non-toxic treatment option that can...

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Oncolytic vaccinia virus delivering tethered IL-12 enhances antitumor effects with improved safety

Immune checkpoint blockade is arguably the most effective current cancer therapy approach; however, its efficacy is limited to patients with “hot” tumors, warranting an effective approach to transform “cold” tumors. Oncolytic viruses (especially properly armed ones) have positive effects on...

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Oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus–based cellular vaccine improves triple-negative breast cancer outcome by enhancing natural killer and CD8+ T-cell functionality

There are very limited and often ineffective treatment options for patients with poor prognosis (chemoresistant and late-stage/metastatic) TNBC. Given the importance of activating TILs in the immunosuppressive TNBC microenvironment and the high therapeutic potential of immunogenic cancer...

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Sixth Immunotherapy of Cancer conference (ITOC): advances and perspectives—a meeting report

Immunotherapy has moved to the forefront of cancer treatment, illustrated by the accelerating pace of novel therapy approvals. In this complex environment, scientists rely on cutting edge conferences to stay informed. The Immunotherapy of Cancer (ITOC) conference was established jointly with the...