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Distinctive germline expression of class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and DRB1 heterozygosis predict the outcome of patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving PD-1/PD-L1 immune che

Nivolumab is a human monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) able to rescue quiescent tumor infiltrating cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) restoring their ability to kill target cells expressing specific tumor antigen-derived epitope peptides bound to homologue human...


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Early tumor shrinkage identifies long-term disease control and survival in patients with lung cancer treated with atezolizumab

Preliminary evidence indicates that early tumor shrinkage (ETS) following immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) initiation may be associated with survival outcomes in patients with advanced melanoma. ETS has not been explored as a biomarker of survival outcomes or patient-reported outcomes in...


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Granzyme B is correlated with clinical outcome after PD-1 blockade in patients with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer

A minority of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) benefit from treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Ineffective effector function of activated T and NK cells may lead to reduced tumor cell death, even when these activated effector cells are released from...


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Neutrophil expansion defines an immunoinhibitory peripheral and intratumoral inflammatory milieu in resected non-small cell lung cancer: a descriptive analysis of a prospectively immunoprofiled cohor

The biological underpinnings of the prognostic and predictive significance of a relative neutrophilia in patients with non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) are undefined. The authors sought to comprehensively examine the relationships between circulating and intratumoral neutrophil populations and...


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Predictive value of integrated 18F-FDG PET/MRI in the early response to nivolumab in patients with previously treated non-small cell lung cancer

The early response to treatment with immune-checkpoint inhibitors is difficult to evaluate. The authors determined whether changes in integrated [ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/MRI ( 18 F-FDG PET/MRI) parameters after the first 2 weeks of antiprogrammed death-1...


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Phase II study of α-galactosylceramide-pulsed antigen-presenting cells in patients with advanced or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells produce copious amounts of cytokines in response to specific glycolipid antigens such as α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) presented by CD1d-expressing antigen-presenting cells (APCs), thus orchestrating other immune cells to fight tumors. Because of their...


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Propensity score–weighted analysis of chemotherapy after PD-1 inhibitors versus chemotherapy alone in patients with non–small cell lung cancer (WJOG10217L)

Studies have suggested that chemotherapy after immune checkpoint inhibitors may confer an improved response for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, potential selection bias in such studies has not been addressed. The authors applied propensity score analysis to investigate the efficacy...


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Identification of tumor immune infiltration-associated lncRNAs for improving prognosis and immunotherapy response of patients with non-small cell lung cancer

Increasing evidence has demonstrated the functional relevance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) to immunity regulation and the tumor microenvironment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, tumor immune infiltration-associated lncRNAs and their value in improving clinical outcomes and...


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Response and outcomes after anti-CTLA4 versus anti-PD1 combined with stereotactic body radiation therapy for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: retrospective analysis of two single-institution pr

This study compared response rates and outcomes of combined radiotherapy and immunotherapy (iRT) based on the type of checkpoint inhibitor (anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) vs antiprogrammed death-1 (PD1)) for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC). The authors...


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Correlation of plasma exosomal microRNAs with the efficacy of immunotherapy in EGFR/ALK wild-type advanced non-small cell lung cancer

Immunotherapy has become an important treatment option for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). At present, none of these existing biomarkers can effectively stratify true responders and there is an urgent need for identifying novel biomarkers. Exosomes derived from the...