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CCL5-armed oncolytic virus augments CCR5-engineered NK cell infiltration and antitumor efficiency

Natural killer (NK) cells have potent antitumor activities. Nevertheless, adoptive transfer therapy of NK cells has gained very limited success in patients with solid tumors as most infused NK cells remain circulating in the peripheral blood instead of entering tumor sites. Chemokines and their...

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Targeting of CXCR3 improves anti-myeloma efficacy of adoptively transferred activated natural killer cells

The peculiar multiple myeloma microenvironment, characterized by up-regulated levels of several inflammatory chemokines, including the CXCR3 receptor ligands CXCL9 and CXCL10, limits NK cell positioning into the bone marrow by interfering with CXCR4 function. It is still unclear if the...

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Monalizumab: inhibiting the novel immune checkpoint NKG2A

The implementation of immune checkpoint inhibitors to the oncology clinic signified a new era in cancer treatment. After the first indication of melanoma, an increasing list of additional cancer types are now treated with immune system targeting antibodies to PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4, alleviating...

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Extracellular NK histones promote immune cell anti-tumor activity by inducing cell clusters through binding to CD138 receptor

Natural killer (NK) cells are important anti-tumor cells of our innate immune system. Their anti-cancer activity is mediated through interaction of a wide array of activating and inhibitory receptors with their ligands on tumor cells. After activation, NK cells also secrete a variety of pro...

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MICA immune complex formed with alpha 3 domain-specific antibody activates human NK cells in a Fc-dependent manner

One of the mechanisms by which tumors evade immune surveillance is through shedding of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I chain-related protein A and B (MICA/B) from their cell surface. MICA/B are ligands for the activating receptor NKG2D on NK and CD8 T cells. This shedding...

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Natural killer T cell activation increases iNOS+CD206- M1 macrophage and controls the growth of solid tumor

NKT cells play an important role in anti-tumor immunity. Alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer), a synthetic glycolipid, is presented to natural killer T (NKT) cells by most antigen-presenting cells through CD1d molecules leading to activation of NKT cells. However, the precise mechanisms of how α...