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COVID-19 and lung cancer: risks, mechanisms and treatment interactions

Cases of the 2019 novel coronavirus also known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue to rise worldwide. To date, there is no effective treatment. Clinical management is largely symptomatic, with organ support in intensive care for critically ill patients. The...


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Neutrophil expansion defines an immunoinhibitory peripheral and intratumoral inflammatory milieu in resected non-small cell lung cancer: a descriptive analysis of a prospectively immunoprofiled cohor

The biological underpinnings of the prognostic and predictive significance of a relative neutrophilia in patients with non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) are undefined. The authors sought to comprehensively examine the relationships between circulating and intratumoral neutrophil populations and...


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T cell receptor repertoire characteristics both before and following immunotherapy correlate with clinical response in mesothelioma

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a highly lethal malignancy in need for new treatment options. Although immunotherapies have been shown to boost a tumor-specific immune response, not all patients respond and prognostic biomarkers are scarce. In this study, the authors determined the...


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Phase II study of α-galactosylceramide-pulsed antigen-presenting cells in patients with advanced or recurrent non-small cell lung cancer

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells produce copious amounts of cytokines in response to specific glycolipid antigens such as α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) presented by CD1d-expressing antigen-presenting cells (APCs), thus orchestrating other immune cells to fight tumors. Because of their...


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Molecular and immunological features of a prolonged exceptional responder with malignant pleural mesothelioma treated initially and rechallenged with pembrolizumab

This case represents an exceptional response to pembrolizumab in a patient with epithelioid mesothelioma with a further response on rechallenge. A 77-year-old woman with advanced epithelioid mesothelioma extensively pretreated with chemotherapy demonstrated a prolonged response of 45 months to...


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Current evidence and future perspectives of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma

Platinum-based chemotherapy is commonly used as the standard first-line treatment for unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). However, in recent times, immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have led to a paradigm shift. The authors review relevant literature and ongoing trials of ICIs...


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Propensity score–weighted analysis of chemotherapy after PD-1 inhibitors versus chemotherapy alone in patients with non–small cell lung cancer (WJOG10217L)

Studies have suggested that chemotherapy after immune checkpoint inhibitors may confer an improved response for non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, potential selection bias in such studies has not been addressed. The authors applied propensity score analysis to investigate the efficacy...


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Identification of tumor immune infiltration-associated lncRNAs for improving prognosis and immunotherapy response of patients with non-small cell lung cancer

Increasing evidence has demonstrated the functional relevance of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) to immunity regulation and the tumor microenvironment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, tumor immune infiltration-associated lncRNAs and their value in improving clinical outcomes and...


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Response and outcomes after anti-CTLA4 versus anti-PD1 combined with stereotactic body radiation therapy for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: retrospective analysis of two single-institution pr

This study compared response rates and outcomes of combined radiotherapy and immunotherapy (iRT) based on the type of checkpoint inhibitor (anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) vs antiprogrammed death-1 (PD1)) for metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (mNSCLC). The authors...


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Correlation of plasma exosomal microRNAs with the efficacy of immunotherapy in EGFR/ALK wild-type advanced non-small cell lung cancer

Immunotherapy has become an important treatment option for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). At present, none of these existing biomarkers can effectively stratify true responders and there is an urgent need for identifying novel biomarkers. Exosomes derived from the...