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ATR inhibitor AZD6738 enhances the antitumor activity of radiotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors by potentiating the tumor immune microenvironment in hepatocellular carcinoma

Radioimmunotherapy has a promising antitumor effect in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), depending on the regulatory effect of radiotherapy on tumor immune microenvironment. Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage repair (DDR) pathway activation leads to the inhibition of immune...

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Viral status, immune microenvironment and immunological response to checkpoint inhibitors in hepatocellular carcinoma

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway have clinical activity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but only a subset of patients respond to these therapies, highlighting a need for novel biomarkers to...

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EpCAM-high liver cancer stem cells resist natural killer cell–mediated cytotoxicity by upregulating CEACAM1

Natural killer (NK) cells can recognize and kill cancer cells directly, but their activity can be attenuated by various inhibitory molecules expressed on the surface. The expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), a potential marker for cancer stem cells (CSCs), is known to be...

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Compound kushen injection relieves tumor-associated macrophage-mediated immunosuppression through TNFR1 and sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma to sorafenib

There is an urgent need for effective treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunotherapy is promising especially when combined with traditional therapies. This study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory function of an approved Chinese medicine formula, compound kushen injection ...

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Angiogenesis and immune checkpoint inhibitors as therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma: current knowledge and future research directions

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second deadliest cancer worldwide, due to its high incidence and poor prognosis. Frequent initial presentation at advanced stages along with impaired liver function limit the use of a broad therapeutic arsenal in patients with HCC. Although main HCC...

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PD1Hi CD8+ T cells correlate with exhausted signature and poor clinical outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma

CD8 + T cells differentiate into exhausted status within tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which constitutes a solid barrier to effective anti-tumor immunity. A detailed characterization of exhausted T cells and their prognostic value in HCC is lacking. The authors current...

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Immunotherapy response evaluation with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in advanced HCC

Currently, there are no imaging predictors of immunotherapy outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The study aim was to determine if stiffness changes measured by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) can be a predictor of immunotherapy response in patients with advanced HCC. The authors...

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EZH2 negatively regulates PD-L1 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

Accumulating studies suggest that targeting epigenetic modifications could improve the efficacy of tumor immunotherapy; however, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain largely unknown. Here, the authors investigated the ability of the epigenetic modifier, enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb...