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Unchecked immunity: a unique case of sequential immune-related adverse events with Pembrolizumab

The authors present a case of sequential immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in a patient with metastatic melanoma treated with single-agent anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) therapy, pembrolizumab. Although numerous cases of irAEs have been reported, sequential multi-organ involvement,...


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Recovery from secondary adrenal insufficiency in a patient with immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy induced hypophysitis

Hypophysitis is a well-recognized immune-related adverse event in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors for cancer. Some anterior pituitary hormones may recover; however, secondary adrenal insufficiency is usually permanent. This case documents an unusual recovery from secondary...


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Intratumoral immunotherapy with TLR7/8 agonist MEDI9197 modulates the tumor microenvironment leading to enhanced activity when combined with other immunotherapies

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) promotes adaptive immunity and tumor regression in some cancer patients. However, in patients with immunologically “cold” tumors, tumor-resident innate immune cell activation may be required to prime an adaptive immune response and so exploit the full potential...


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Niclosamide, an antihelmintic drug, enhances efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint blockade in non-small cell lung cancer

PD-1/PD-L1 blockade has received approval for clinical application due to its encouraging benefit with improving prognosis in selected populations. Unfortunately, the response to immunotherapy for many patients remains unsatisfactory. It remains a great challenge to generate potential...


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Carboxyamidotriazole combined with IDO1-Kyn-AhR pathway inhibitors profoundly enhances cancer immunotherapy

Cancer immunotherapy has generated significant excitement, mainly as a result of the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors. The blockade of PD-1 or its ligand with antibodies has resulted in impressive clinical efficacy. However, a subset of patients does not respond to biologic...


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Phase I trial of HuMax-IL8 (BMS-986253), an anti-IL-8 monoclonal antibody, in patients with metastatic or unresectable solid tumors

HuMax-IL8 (now known as BMS-986253) is a novel, fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits interleukin-8 (IL-8), a chemokine that promotes tumor progression, immune escape, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Studies have demonstrated that...


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Anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD1) immunotherapy induced autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type II (APS-2): a case report and review of the literature

Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type II (APS-2) is a rare constellation of autoimmune hypoadrenalism, thyroid dysfunction and/or type 1 diabetes (T1DM), usually occurring in the 3rd or 4th decades and associated with a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR3 or DR4 serotype. The authors detail the...


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Influence of low-dose radiation on abscopal responses in patients receiving high-dose radiation and immunotherapy

Preclinical evidence suggests that low-dose radiation may overcome the inhibitory effects of the tumor stroma and improve a tumor’s response to immunotherapy, when combined with high-dose radiation to another tumor. The aim of this study was to evaluate tumor responses to this combination in a...


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Reactivation of tuberculosis in cancer patients following administration of immune checkpoint inhibitors: current evidence and clinical practice recommendations

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICBs) have revolutionized cancer treatment producing remarkable and durable responses for a range of malignancies. However, the additional modulation of immune response by ICBs may rarely cause immune-related infectious complications, including re-activation of...


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Prim-O-glucosylcimifugin enhances the antitumour effect of PD-1 inhibition by targeting myeloid-derived suppressor cells

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immunosuppressive cells that play an important role in immune evasion, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor tolerance and tumour progression. Therefore, MDSCs are potential targets for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, the authors screened an effective...