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Nivolumab and dinutuximab beta in two patients with refractory neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequent extracranial solid tumor in children. More than 50% of patients present with widespread (stage M) or refractory disease. In these patients, event-free and overall survival was improved by the addition of the anti-disialoganglioside antibody dinutuximab...


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Conversion of ATP to adenosine by CD39 and CD73 in multiple myeloma can be successfully targeted together with adenosine receptor A2A blockade

PD1/PDL1-directed therapies have been unsuccessful for multiple myeloma (MM), an incurable cancer of plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). Therefore, other immune checkpoints such as extracellular adenosine and its immunosuppressive receptor should be considered. CD39 and CD73 convert...


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Overcoming resistance to anti-PD1 and anti-PD-L1 treatment in gastrointestinal malignancies

In the last few years, the unprecedented results of immune checkpoint inhibitors have led to a paradigm shift in clinical practice for the treatment of several cancer types. However, the vast majority of patients with gastrointestinal cancer do not benefit from immunotherapy. To date,...


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Heat shock and HSP70 regulate 5-FU-mediated caspase-1 activation in myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tumor growth in mice

The authors have previously shown that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) selectively kills myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and activates NLRP3 (NOD-leucine rich repeat and pyrin containing protein 3) inflammasome. NLRP3 activation leads to caspase-1 activation and production of IL-1β, which in turn...


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The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer perspective on regulation of interleukin-6 signaling in COVID-19-related systemic inflammatory response

The pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has placed an unprecedented burden on healthcare systems around the world. In patients who experience severe disease, acute respiratory distress is often accompanied by a pathological immune reaction, sometimes referred to as ‘cytokine...


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Paradoxical interaction between cancer and long-term postsepsis disorder: impairment of de novo carcinogenesis versus favoring the growth of established tumors

Previous data have reported that the growth of established tumors may be facilitated by postsepsis disorder through changes in the microenvironment and immune dysfunction. However, the influence of postsepsis disorder in initial carcinogenesis remains elusive. The authors conclude that their...


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CCR5 blockade inflames antitumor immunity in BAP1-mutant clear cell renal cell carcinoma

Patients with BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1)-mutant clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have worse prognosis. C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) plays an important role in ccRCC development and its expression is elevated in BAP1-mutant tumors. The authors conclude that CCR5 in BAP1-mutant...


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Impact of a preceding radiotherapy on the outcome of immune checkpoint inhibition in metastatic melanoma: a multicenter retrospective cohort study of the DeCOG

Immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) is an essential treatment option in melanoma. Its outcome may be improved by a preceding radiation of metastases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a preceding radiotherapy on the clinical outcome of ICI treatment. The authors conclude that their...


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Incomplete Freund’s adjuvant reduces arginase and enhances Th1 dominance, TLR signaling and CD40 ligand expression in the vaccine site microenvironment

Immunogenicity of cancer vaccines is impacted by adjuvants and schedule, but systematic assessments of their effects have not been performed. Montanide ISA-51, an incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA), is used in many vaccine trials, but concerns have been raised about negative effects in murine...


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The Fully human anti-CD47 antibody SRF231 exerts dual-mechanism antitumor activity via engagement of the activating receptor CD32a

D47 is a broadly expressed cell surface glycoprotein associated with immune evasion. Interaction with the inhibitory receptor signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα), primarily expressed on myeloid cells, normally serves to restrict effector function (eg, phagocytosis and immune cell homeostasis...