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High dose-rate brachytherapy of localized prostate cancer converts tumors from cold to hot

Prostate cancer (PCa) has a profoundly immunosuppressive microenvironment and is commonly immune excluded with few infiltrative lymphocytes and low levels of immune activation. High-dose radiation has been demonstrated to stimulate the immune system in various human solid tumors. The authors...


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IFN-γ treatment protocol for MHC-Ilo/PD-L1+ pancreatic tumor cells selectively restores their TAP-mediated presentation competence and CD8 T-cell priming potential

Many cancer cells express a major histocompatibility complex class I low/ programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 positive (MHC-I lo /PD-L1 + ) cell surface profile. For immunotherapy, there is, thus, an urgent need to restore presentation competence of cancer cells with defects in MHC-I processing...


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IL-6 regulates CCR5 expression and immunosuppressive capacity of MDSC in murine melanoma

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) play a major role in the immunosuppressive melanoma microenvironment. They are generated under chronic inflammatory conditions characterized by the constant production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, including IL-6. Recruitment of...


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Oxazaphosphorines combined with immune checkpoint blockers: dose-dependent tuning between immune and cytotoxic effects

Oxazaphosphorines (cyclophosphamide (CPA), ifosfamide (IFO)) are major alkylating agents of polychemotherapy protocols but limiting their toxicity and increasing their efficacy could be of major interest. Oxazaphosphorines are prodrugs that require an activation by cytochrome P450 (CYP). CPA is...


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BCG vaccine and COVID-19: implications for infection prophylaxis and cancer immunotherapy

The COVID-19 pandemic has killed over 400 000 people globally. Ecological evidence indicates that countries with national universal BCG vaccination programs for tuberculosis (TB) prevention have a much lower incidence of severe COVID-19 and mortality compared with those that do not have such...


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Durable benefit from immunotherapy and accompanied lupus erythematosus in pancreatic adenocarcinoma with DNA repair deficiency

Clinical trials showed limited benefit of anti-PD-1 (programmed cell death 1) monotherapy in pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients and immune-related adverse events caused by immune checkpoint inhibitors were rarely reported in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Here, the authors report the first case of...


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MRI of tumor T cell infiltration in response to checkpoint inhibitor therapy

Immune checkpoint inhibitors, the most widespread class of immunotherapies, have demonstrated unique response patterns that are not always adequately captured by traditional response criteria such as the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors or even immune-specific response criteria....


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Influence of gut microbiome on multiple myeloma: friend or foe?

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells, which typically evolves over time from its precursor, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. While the underlying mechanisms of this evolution remain elusive, immunomodulatory factors affecting the bone...


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Phase I study of the 177Lu-DOTA0-Tyr3-Octreotate (lutathera) in combination with nivolumab in patients with neuroendocrine tumors of the lung

Lutathera is a 177 Lutetium-labeled somatostatin analog approved for the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Somatostatin receptors are expressed in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 antibody, may act synergistically with lutathera to...


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Outcomes and biomarker analyses among patients with COVID-19 treated with interleukin 6 (IL-6) receptor antagonist sarilumab at a single institution in Italy

The inflammatory pathology observed in severe COVID-19 disease caused by the 2019 novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is characterized by elevated serum levels of C reactive protein (CRP) and cytokines, including interferon gamma, interleukin 8 (IL-8), and...