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Nivolumab in chemotherapy-resistant cervical cancer: report of a vulvitis as a novel immune-related adverse event and molecular analysis of a persistent complete response

Treatment options for advanced cervical cancer are limited and patients experiencing recurrence after first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy and bevacizumab have a poor prognosis. A recent phase II study in advanced cervical cancer has demonstrated a disease control rate of 68.4% with the...


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Antibody drug conjugates against the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a novel therapeutic target in endometrial cancer

The treatment of endometrial cancer (EC), the most common gynecological cancer, is currently hampered by the toxicity of current cytotoxic agents, meaning novel therapeutic approaches are urgently required. The data the authors present, together with important design considerations implied by...


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Tumor immune microenvironment and genomic evolution in a patient with metastatic triple negative breast cancer and a complete response to atezolizumab

Metastatic TNBC (mTNBC) has a poor prognosis and few treatment options. The anti-PD-L1 antibody atezolizumab demonstrated clinical activity in mTNBC patients with PD-L1-positive tumor-infiltrating immune cells. The current study describes the tumor immune microenvironment (TiME) and genomic...


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Discovery of low-molecular weight anti-PD-L1 peptides for cancer immunotherapy

Immunotherapy using checkpoint inhibitors, especially PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors, has now evolved into the most promising therapy for cancer patients. However, most of these inhibitors are monoclonal antibodies, and their large size may limit their tumor penetration, leading to suboptimal efficacy....


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Pericardial effusion under nivolumab: case-reports and review of the literature

Nivolumab, a programmed death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor, is an immune checkpoint inhibitor particularly used in the treatment of malignant melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma. Immune-related adverse events are frequent under immunotherapies. Cardiotoxic side effects, initially...


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Monalizumab: inhibiting the novel immune checkpoint NKG2A

The implementation of immune checkpoint inhibitors to the oncology clinic signified a new era in cancer treatment. After the first indication of melanoma, an increasing list of additional cancer types are now treated with immune system targeting antibodies to PD-1, PD-L1 and CTLA-4, alleviating...


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Seronegative autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy from dual immune checkpoint inhibition in a patient with metastatic melanoma

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have improved clinical outcomes including survival in several malignancies but have also been associated with a range of immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Neurological irAEs are rare compared to the more typical skin, gastrointestinal, and endocrine toxicities,...


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CAR-T cell therapy: a potential new strategy against prostate cancer

Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the main causes of cancer-related death in men. In the present immunotherapy era , several immunotherapeutic agents have been evaluated in PCa with poor results, possibly due to its low mutational burden. The recent development of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR...


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Extracellular NK histones promote immune cell anti-tumor activity by inducing cell clusters through binding to CD138 receptor

Natural killer (NK) cells are important anti-tumor cells of our innate immune system. Their anti-cancer activity is mediated through interaction of a wide array of activating and inhibitory receptors with their ligands on tumor cells. After activation, NK cells also secrete a variety of pro...


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TLR9 acts as a sensor for tumor-released DNA to modulate anti-tumor immunity after chemotherapy

The tumor microenvironment exists in a state of dynamic equilibrium, in which a balance of agonist and antagonist signals govern the anti-tumor immune responses. Previous studies have shown that chemotherapy could shift this balance in favor of agonistic signals for the anti-tumor immune...