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The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer perspective on regulation of interleukin-6 signaling in COVID-19-related systemic inflammatory response

The pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has placed an unprecedented burden on healthcare systems around the world. In patients who experience severe disease, acute respiratory distress is often accompanied by a pathological immune reaction, sometimes referred to as ‘cytokine...

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ALKS 4230: a novel engineered IL-2 fusion protein with an improved cellular selectivity profile for cancer immunotherapy

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) plays a pivotal role in immune homeostasis due to its ability to stimulate numerous lymphocyte subsets including natural killer (NK) cells, effector CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, and regulatory T cells (T regs ). Low concentrations of IL-2 induce signaling through the...

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Functional and mechanistic advantage of the use of a bifunctional anti-PD-L1/IL-15 superagonist

Anti(α)-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) monotherapy fails to provide durable clinical benefit for most patients with carcinoma. Recent studies suggested that strategies to reduce immunosuppressive cells, promote systemic T-cell responses and lymphocyte...

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Insights from immuno-oncology: the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer Statement on access to IL-6-targeting therapies for COVID-19

The hypoxia and profound inflammatory response associated with the pneumonitis observed with the SARS-CoV-2 virus responsible for the recent COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed intensive care facilities in the epicenters of infection including Wuhan, China, Northern Italy and in the USA, the...

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Histiocyte predominant myocarditis resulting from the addition of interferon gamma to cyclophosphamide-based lymphodepletion for adoptive cellular therapy

Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) is a promising treatment for synovial sarcoma (SS) with reported response rates of over 50%. However, more work is needed to obtain deeper and more durable responses. SS has a ‘cold’ tumor immune microenvironment with low levels of major histocompatibility complex...

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Low-dose interferon-alpha preconditioning and adoptive cell therapy in patients with metastatic melanoma refractory to standard (immune) therapies: a phase I/II study

Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with tumor-reactive T cells has shown consistent clinical efficacy. The authros evaluated the response to ACT in combination with interferon alpha (IFNa) preconditioning in patients with stage IV metastatic melanoma, most of which were progressive on cytotoxic T...

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Oncolytic vaccinia virus delivering tethered IL-12 enhances antitumor effects with improved safety

Immune checkpoint blockade is arguably the most effective current cancer therapy approach; however, its efficacy is limited to patients with “hot” tumors, warranting an effective approach to transform “cold” tumors. Oncolytic viruses (especially properly armed ones) have positive effects on...

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Enhanced efficacy and limited systemic cytokine exposure with membrane-anchored interleukin-12 T-cell therapy in murine tumor models

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent, proinflammatory cytokine that holds promise for cancer immunotherapy, but its clinical use has been limited by its toxicity. To minimize systemic exposure and potential toxicity while maintaining the beneficial effects of IL-12, the authors developed a novel...

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IL-17 inhibits CXCL9/10-mediated recruitment of CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and regulatory T cells to colorectal tumors

The IL-17 family cytokines are potent drivers of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. The authors and others have shown that IL-17 mainly signals to tumor cells to promote CRC, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. IL-17 also dampens Th1-armed anti-tumor immunity, in part by attracting...