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ATR inhibitor AZD6738 enhances the antitumor activity of radiotherapy and immune checkpoint inhibitors by potentiating the tumor immune microenvironment in hepatocellular carcinoma

Radioimmunotherapy has a promising antitumor effect in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), depending on the regulatory effect of radiotherapy on tumor immune microenvironment. Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced DNA damage repair (DDR) pathway activation leads to the inhibition of immune...


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Diffuse pneumonitis from coronavirus HKU1 on checkpoint inhibitor therapy

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) can produce specific immune-related adverse events including pneumonitis. The impact of ICI therapy on the severity of acute coronavirus infection symptomatology warrants further exploration. The authors report the first case of a patient with melanoma with...


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Nivolumab and dinutuximab beta in two patients with refractory neuroblastoma

Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequent extracranial solid tumor in children. More than 50% of patients present with widespread (stage M) or refractory disease. In these patients, event-free and overall survival was improved by the addition of the anti-disialoganglioside antibody dinutuximab...


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Conversion of ATP to adenosine by CD39 and CD73 in multiple myeloma can be successfully targeted together with adenosine receptor A2A blockade

PD1/PDL1-directed therapies have been unsuccessful for multiple myeloma (MM), an incurable cancer of plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). Therefore, other immune checkpoints such as extracellular adenosine and its immunosuppressive receptor should be considered. CD39 and CD73 convert...


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Heat shock and HSP70 regulate 5-FU-mediated caspase-1 activation in myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tumor growth in mice

The authors have previously shown that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) selectively kills myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and activates NLRP3 (NOD-leucine rich repeat and pyrin containing protein 3) inflammasome. NLRP3 activation leads to caspase-1 activation and production of IL-1β, which in turn...


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Combination immunotherapy induces distinct T-cell repertoire responses when administered to patients with different malignancies

CTLA-4 blockade with ipilimumab is Food and Drug Administration-approved for melanoma as a monotherapy and has been shown to modulate the circulating T-cell repertoire. The authors have previously reported clinical trials combining CTLA-4 blockade with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating...


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Apatinib plus camrelizumab (anti-PD1 therapy, SHR-1210) for advanced osteosarcoma (APFAO) progressing after chemotherapy: a single-arm, open-label, phase 2 trial

Results of our previous study showed high objective response but short-term activity of apatinib in advanced osteosarcoma. The authors aimed to investigate the activity of apatinib in combination with camrelizumab in patients with inoperable high-grade osteosarcoma progressing after chemotherapy...


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Impact of a preceding radiotherapy on the outcome of immune checkpoint inhibition in metastatic melanoma: a multicenter retrospective cohort study of the DeCOG

Immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) is an essential treatment option in melanoma. Its outcome may be improved by a preceding radiation of metastases. This study aimed to investigate the impact of a preceding radiotherapy on the clinical outcome of ICI treatment. The authors conclude that their...


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Development and validation of the immune signature to predict distant metastasis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

The tumor immune microenvironment has clinicopathological significance in predicting prognosis and therapeutic efficacy. The authors aimed to develop an immune signature to predict distant metastasis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). They conclude that the immune signature...


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Histiocyte predominant myocarditis resulting from the addition of interferon gamma to cyclophosphamide-based lymphodepletion for adoptive cellular therapy

Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) is a promising treatment for synovial sarcoma (SS) with reported response rates of over 50%. However, more work is needed to obtain deeper and more durable responses. SS has a ‘cold’ tumor immune microenvironment with low levels of major histocompatibility complex...