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Regorafenib combined with PD1 blockade increases CD8 T-cell infiltration by inducing CXCL10 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma

Combining inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor and the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) pathway has shown efficacy in multiple cancers, but the disease-specific and agent-specific mechanisms of benefit remain unclear. The authors examined the efficacy and defined the mechanisms...

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Prognostic value of HLA-I homozygosity in patients with non-small cell lung cancer treated with single agent immunotherapy

The authors have aimed to assess the impact of genomic human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-I/II homozygosity on the survival benefit of patients with unresectable locally advanced, metastatic non-small lung cancer treated by single-agent programmed cell death protein-1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD1...

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Investigation of the prognostic value of CD4 T cell subsets expanded from tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of colorectal cancer liver metastases

The positive role of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) has been well described but the prognostic value of CD4 T cell subsets remained to be investigated. In this study, the authors expanded TIL from surgically resected liver metastases of...

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Wrinkle in the plan: miR-34a-5p impacts chemokine signaling by modulating CXCL10/CXCL11/CXCR3-axis in CD4+, CD8+ T cells, and M1 macrophages

In 2016 the first-in-human phase I study of a miRNA-based cancer therapy with a liposomal mimic of microRNA-34a-5p (miR-34a-5p) was closed due to five immune related serious adverse events (SAEs) resulting in four patient deaths. For future applications of miRNA mimics in cancer therapy it is...

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Early changes in immune cell subsets with corticosteroids in patients with solid tumors: implications for COVID-19 management

The risk–benefit calculation for corticosteroid administration in the management of COVID-19 is complex and urgently requires data to inform the decision. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of systemic inflammation associated with poor prognosis in both COVID-19 and cancer....

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Baseline prognostic nutritional index and changes in pretreatment body mass index associate with immunotherapy response in patients with advanced cancer

Recent research suggests that baseline body mass index (BMI) is associated with response to immunotherapy. In this study, the authors tested the hypothesis that worsening nutritional status prior to the start of immunotherapy, rather than baseline BMI, negatively impacts immunotherapy response....

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Eftilagimod alpha, a soluble lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3) protein plus pembrolizumab in patients with metastatic melanoma

To evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of eftilagimod alpha (efti), a soluble lymphocyte activation gene-3 protein, in combination with the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) antagonist pembrolizumab. The authors conclude that efti was well tolerated in...

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Interleukin-15 and cancer: some solved and many unsolved questions

Soluble interleukin (IL)-15 exists under two forms: as monomer (sIL-15) or as heterodimeric complex in association with sIL-15Rα (sIL-15/IL-15Rα). Both forms have been successfully tested in experimental tumor murine models and are currently undergoing investigation in phase I/II clinical trials...

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Immune profiling of uveal melanoma identifies a potential signature associated with response to immunotherapy

To date, no systemic therapy, including immunotherapy, exists to improve clinical outcomes in metastatic uveal melanoma (UM) patients. To understand the role of immune infiltrates in the genesis, metastasis, and response to treatment for UM, the authors systematically characterized immune...