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Early changes in immune cell subsets with corticosteroids in patients with solid tumors: implications for COVID-19 management

The risk–benefit calculation for corticosteroid administration in the management of COVID-19 is complex and urgently requires data to inform the decision. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a marker of systemic inflammation associated with poor prognosis in both COVID-19 and cancer....


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Baseline prognostic nutritional index and changes in pretreatment body mass index associate with immunotherapy response in patients with advanced cancer

Recent research suggests that baseline body mass index (BMI) is associated with response to immunotherapy. In this study, we test the hypothesis that worsening nutritional status prior to the start of immunotherapy, rather than baseline BMI, negatively impacts immunotherapy response. Standard of...


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Concomitant or delayed anti-TNF differentially impact on immune-related adverse events and antitumor efficacy after anti-CD40 therapy

Concomitant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) neutralization in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) reduces clinical immune-related adverse events (irAEs) and appears to improve antitumor efficacy in preclinical tumor models. Agonistic antibodies targeting costimulatory receptors such...


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Combination of gemcitabine and anti-PD-1 antibody enhances the anticancer effect of M1 macrophages and the Th1 response in a murine model of pancreatic cancer liver metastasis

Pancreatic ductular adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the most dreadful of malignancies, in part due to the lack of efficacious chemotherapy. Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-programmed cell death 1 (anti-PD-1) antibodies, are novel promising forms of systemic immunotherapy. In the...


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Analysis of tumor-infiltrating NK and T cells highlights IL-15 stimulation and TIGIT blockade as a combination immunotherapy strategy for soft tissue sarcomas

Given the unmet need for novel immunotherapy in soft tissue sarcoma (STS), we sought to characterize the phenotype and function of intratumoral natural killer (NK) and T cells to identify novel strategies to augment tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) function. Intratumoral NK and T cells are...


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CAR-T cells and TRUCKs that recognize an EBNA-3C-derived epitope presented on HLA-B*35 control Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferation

Immunosuppressive therapy or T-cell depletion in transplant patients can cause uncontrolled growth of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cells resulting in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Current treatment options do not distinguish between healthy and malignant B cells and...


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Antitumor efficacy of combined CTLA4/PD-1 blockade without intestinal inflammation is achieved by elimination of FcγR interactions

Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and CTLA4 combination blockade enhances clinical efficacy in melanoma compared with targeting either checkpoint alone; however, clinical response improvement is coupled with increased risk of developing immune-related adverse events (irAE). Delineating the...


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Autoimmunity linked protein phosphatase PTPN22 as a target for cancer immunotherapy

Cancer immunotherapy has evolved from interferon-alpha (IFNα) and interleukin-2 in the 1980s to CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs), the latter highlighting the importance of enhancing T-cell functions. While the search for novel immunomodulatory pathways continues, combination...


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EBV-EBNA1 constructs an immunosuppressive microenvironment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma by promoting the chemoattraction of Treg cells

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is primarily caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in NPC endemic areas. EBNA1 is an EBV-encoded nuclear antigen, which plays a critical role in the maintenance and replication of EBV genome. However, the mechanisms of EBNA1-promoted NPC immune escape...


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Checkpoint therapeutic target database (CKTTD): the first comprehensive database for checkpoint targets and their modulators in cancer immunotherapy

Checkpoint targets play a key role in tumor-mediated immune escape and therefore are critical for cancer immunotherapy. Unfortunately, there is a lack of bioinformatics resource that compile all the checkpoint targets for translational research and drug discovery in immuno-oncology. In total,...