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CCR5 blockade inflames antitumor immunity in BAP1-mutant clear cell renal cell carcinoma

Patients with BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP1)-mutant clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) have worse prognosis. C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) plays an important role in ccRCC development and its expression is elevated in BAP1-mutant tumors. The authors conclude that CCR5 in BAP1-mutant...

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C reactive protein impairs adaptive immunity in immune cells of patients with melanoma

High C reactive protein (CRP) levels have been reported to be associated with a poor clinical outcome in a number of malignancies and with programmed cell death protein 1 immune checkpoint blockade in patients with advanced cancer. Little is known about the direct effects of CRP on adaptive...

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Lifting the innate immune barriers to antitumor immunity

The immune system evolved for adequate surveillance and killing of pathogens while minimizing host damage, such as due to chronic or exaggerated inflammation and autoimmunity. This is achieved by negative regulators and checkpoints that limit the magnitude and time course of the immune response....

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Autophagy induction by thiostrepton improves the efficacy of immunogenic chemotherapy

I mmunogenic cell death (ICD) is a peculiar modality of cellular demise that elicits adaptive immune responses and triggers T cell-dependent immunity. Here, the authors discovered thiostrepton as an enhancer of ICD able to boost chemotherapy-induced ATP release, calreticulin exposure and high...

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Lactoferrin-containing immunocomplex mediates antitumor effects by resetting tumor-associated macrophages to M1 phenotype

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) resemble M2-polarized cells with potent immunosuppressive activity and play a pivotal role in tumor growth and progression. Converting TAMs to proinflammatory M1-like phenotype is thus an attractive strategy for antitumor immunotherapy. The authors conclude...

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Non-thermal histotripsy tumor ablation promotes abscopal immune responses that enhance cancer immunotherapy

Developing the ability to use tumor-directed therapies to trigger potentially therapeutic immune responses against cancer antigens remains a high priority for cancer immunotherapy. The authors hypothesized that histotripsy, a novel non-invasive, non-thermal ablation modality that uses ultrasound...

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TLR9 activation cooperates with T cell checkpoint blockade to regress poorly immunogenic melanoma

Tumors that lack pre-existing immune infiltration respond poorly to T cell checkpoint blockade immunotherapy. These cancers often surround themselves with high densities of suppressive myeloid stroma while excluding immunostimulatory dendritic cells. Tumor-resident myeloid cells and selected...

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A new synthetic toll-like receptor 1/2 ligand is an efficient adjuvant for peptide vaccination in a human volunteer

The authors previously showed that the bacterial lipopeptide Pam 3 Cys-Ser-Ser, meanwhile established as a toll-like receptor (TLR) 1/2 ligand, acts as a strong adjuvant for the induction of virus specific CD8 + T cells in mice, when covalently coupled to a synthetic peptide. They now...

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Immunostimulatory RNA leads to functional reprogramming of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in pancreatic cancer

The tumor microenvironment (TME) combines features of regulatory cytokines and immune cell populations to evade the recognition by the immune system. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) comprise populations of immature myeloid cells in tumor-bearing hosts with a highly immunosuppressive...