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Compound kushen injection relieves tumor-associated macrophage-mediated immunosuppression through TNFR1 and sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma to sorafenib

There is an urgent need for effective treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunotherapy is promising especially when combined with traditional therapies. This study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory function of an approved Chinese medicine formula, compound kushen injection ...


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Pre-existing antitherapeutic antibodies against the Fc region of the hu14.18K322A mAb are associated with outcome in patients with relapsed neuroblastoma

Patients with cancer receiving tumor-reactive humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy can develop a human antihuman antibody (HAHA) response against the therapeutic mAb. The authors evaluated for HAHA in patients with neuroblastoma treated in a phase I study of humanized anti-GD2 mAb ...


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Pre-existing inflammatory immune microenvironment predicts the clinical response of vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions to therapeutic HPV16 vaccination

Vulvar high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (vHSIL) is predominantly induced by high-risk human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV16). In two independent trials, therapeutic vaccination against the HPV16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins resulted in objective partial and complete responses (PRs/CRs) in...


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Randomized phase II study of the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor acalabrutinib, alone or with pembrolizumab in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

The immunosuppressive desmoplastic stroma of pancreatic cancer represents a major hurdle to developing an effective immune response. Preclinical studies in pancreatic cancer have demonstrated promising anti-tumor activity with Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibition combined with programmed cell...


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T-cell lymphoma secondary to checkpoint inhibitor therapy

Murine model suggests programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), an immune checkpoint not only plays role in tumor escape but is also a tumor suppressor for T-cells. But until, no reports of secondary T-cell lymphoma postuse of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has been reported. The authors present a...


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On the mechanism of anti-CD39 immune checkpoint therapy

With the coming of age of cancer immunotherapy, the search for new therapeutic targets has led to the identification of immunosuppressive adenosine as an important regulator of antitumor immunity. This resulted in the development of selective inhibitors targeting various components of the...


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Poor outcome with anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody due to poor pharmacokinetic properties in PD-1/PD-L1 blockade-sensitive mouse models

Recently, antiprogrammed cell death protein 1 (aPD-1) and antiprogrammed death-ligand 1 (aPD-L1) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been approved. Even though aPD-1 and aPD-L1 mAbs target the same PD-1/PD-L1 axis, it is still unclear whether both mAbs exert equivalent pharmacological activity in...


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High-dimensional immune-profiling in cancer: implications for immunotherapy

The authors state there is a need to better understand tumor immunity in order to design immunotherapeutic strategies, especially evidence-based combination therapies, for improved clinical outcomes. With this aim, cancer research turned its attention to profiling the immune contexture of either...


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Correlation of plasma exosomal microRNAs with the efficacy of immunotherapy in EGFR/ALK wild-type advanced non-small cell lung cancer

Immunotherapy has become an important treatment option for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). At present, none of these existing biomarkers can effectively stratify true responders and there is an urgent need for identifying novel biomarkers. Exosomes derived from the...


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Regulatory T-cell depletion in the setting of autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: pilot study

Progression after high-dose melphalan with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in multiple myeloma (MM) may be due in part to immune dysfunction. Regulatory T (Treg) cells reconstitute rapidly after ASCT and inhibit immune responses against myeloma cells. The authors performed a...