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Metastatic breast cancers have reduced immune cell recruitment but harbor increased macrophages relative to their matched primary tumors

The interplay between the immune system and tumor progression is well recognized. However, current human breast cancer immunophenotyping studies are mostly focused on primary tumors with metastatic breast cancer lesions remaining largely understudied. To address this gap, the authors examined...


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Immunotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma: the complex interface between inflammation, fibrosis, and the immune response

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide and confers a poor prognosis. Beyond standard systemic therapy with multikinase inhibitors, recent studies demonstrate the potential for robust and durable responses from immune checkpoint inhibition in subsets...


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Alteration in TET1 as potential biomarker for immune checkpoint blockade in multiple cancers

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have achieved impressive success in different cancer types, yet responses vary and predictive biomarkers are urgently needed. Growing evidence points to a link between DNA methylation and anti-tumor immunity, while clinical data on the association of genomic...


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Tumor-infiltrating B cells affect the progression of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma via cell-to-cell interactions with CD8+ T cells

Standard treatment of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is associated with high morbidity, whereas immunotherapeutic approaches using PD-1:PD-L1 checkpoint blockade only show moderate response rates in OPSCC patients. Therefore, a better stratification of patients and the development...


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Adenosine mediates functional and metabolic suppression of peripheral and tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells

Several mechanisms are present in the tumor microenvironment (TME) to impair cytotoxic T cell responses potentially able to control tumor growth. Among these, the accumulation of adenosine (Ado) contributes to tumor progression and represents a promising immunotherapeutic target. Ado has been...


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Closed system RT-qPCR as a potential companion diagnostic test for immunotherapy outcome in metastatic melanoma

In melanoma, there is no companion diagnostic test to predict response to programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) axis immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy. In the adjuvant setting, only one in five patients may benefit from ICI, so a biomarker is needed to select those that may or may not benefit....


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Immunosuppression by monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in patients with pancreatic ductal carcinoma is orchestrated by STAT3

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly devastating disease with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 8%. New evidence indicates that PDAC cells release pro-inflammatory metabolites that induce a marked alteration of normal hematopoiesis, favoring the expansion and...


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Clinical and immune profiling for cancer of unknown primary site

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) confer a survival benefit in many cancer types. Given that the survival outcome for cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) remains poor, the authors investigated the potential of CUP for immunotherapy. The authors conclude that the survival outcome of CUP...


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Late-differentiated effector neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells are enriched in peripheral blood of non-small cell lung carcinoma patients responding to atezolizumab treatment

There is strong evidence that immunotherapy-mediated tumor rejection can be driven by tumor-specific CD8+ T cells reinvigorated to recognize neoantigens derived from tumor somatic mutations. Thus, the frequencies or characteristics of tumor-reactive, mutation-specific CD8+ T cells could be used...


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Impact of antibiotic therapy on the development and response to treatment of immune checkpoint inhibitor-mediated diarrhea and colitis

The gut microbiome impacts the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy and the development of ICI-mediated diarrhea and / or colitis (IMDC). Antibiotic therapy,especially that with anaerobic activity, has profound effects on the gut microbiome. In this study, the authors sought...