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Phase 2 study of pembrolizumab in patients with advanced rare cancers

Patients with advanced rare cancers have poor prognosis and few treatment options. As immunotherapy is effective across multiple cancer types, we aimed to assess pembrolizumab (programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor) in patients with advanced rare cancers. In this open-label, phase 2 trial,...


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A first-in-human phase 1 dose escalation study of spartalizumab (PDR001), an anti–PD-1 antibody, in patients with advanced solid tumors

Spartalizumab is a humanized IgG4κ monoclonal antibody that binds programmed death-1 (PD-1) and blocks its interaction with PD-L1 and PD-L2. This phase 1/2 study was designed to assess the safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary efficacy of spartalizumab in patients with advanced or metastatic...


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A case of dual-mechanism immune-related anaemia in a patient with metastatic melanoma treated with nivolumab and ipilimumab

The combination of the immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) ipilimumab and nivolumab is a mainstay of treatment for selected patients with metastatic melanoma. This combination also results in more frequent immune-related adverse events (irAEs) than either ICI alone. These irAEs can be severe and...


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Salvage ipilimumab associated with a significant response in sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma

Metastatic sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (sRCC) is an aggressive variant of RCC with generally poor prognosis. Treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors or chemotherapy generates only short-lived responses. Recent research has suggested a role for combination checkpoint...


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Repurposing infectious disease vaccines for intratumoral immunotherapy

Intratumoral delivery of viruses and virus-associated molecular patterns can achieve antitumor effects that are largely mediated by the elicitation or potentiation of immune responses against the malignancy. Attenuated vaccines are approved and marketed as good manufacturing practice (GMP)...


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Current evidence and future perspectives of immune-checkpoint inhibitors in unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma

Platinum-based chemotherapy is commonly used as the standard first-line treatment for unresectable malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). However, in recent times, immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have led to a paradigm shift. The authors review relevant literature and ongoing trials of ICIs...


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Safety and efficacy of restarting immune checkpoint inhibitors after clinically significant immune-related adverse events in metastatic renal cell carcinoma

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) induce a range of immune-related adverse events (irAEs) with various degrees of severity. While clinical experience with ICI retreatment following clinically significant irAEs is growing, the safety and efficacy are not yet well characterized. This multicenter...


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Rapid recovery of postnivolumab vemurafenib-induced Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) syndrome after tocilizumab and infliximab administration

Immune checkpoint inhibitors such as nivolumab and targeted BRAF inhibitors have dramatically altered the treatment outcomes of metastatic melanoma over the past few years. Skin toxicity is the most common adverse event (AE) related to the commonly used BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib, affecting more...


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Phase II study of pembrolizumab and capecitabine for triple negative and hormone receptor-positive, HER2−negative endocrine-refractory metastatic breast cancer

Response rates to single agent immune checkpoint blockade in unselected pretreated HER2−negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are low. However, they may be augmented when combined with chemotherapy. The authors conducted a single-arm, phase II study of patients with triple negative (TN) or...