JITC Digest October 2020

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Inside this Issue:

Letter from the Editor

Dear JITC Readers,pedro-romero_1__1_.jpg

Welcome to the latest edition of the JITC digest. For many of our readers, especially in the United States, October is associated with Halloween—the seasonal mood hearkens back to the earliest days of immunotherapy, when many considered the concept of immunological control of tumors to be the stuff of “witchcraft.”

Now, of course, thanks to tireless efforts by clinicians and researchers as well as participation by patients in clinical trials, our understanding of tumor immunology has advanced by leaps and bounds. Concepts once thought to be spooky and mysterious such as immune checkpoints are now generally accepted as common knowledge. Every advance, however, also brings new areas of inquiry, and JITC will continue to publish the leading research in our field.

We also look forward to SITC’s annual meeting and pre-conference program, this year reimagined as an entirely virtual experience. The virtual meeting will be a one of a kind opportunity to hear from luminaries in our field as well as view presentations on the latest research. Find out more about registration here.

The original research articles featured in this month’s digest highlight several exciting emerging areas in immunotherapy. Elham Beyranvand Nejad and colleagues add a new angle into the important topic of mechanisms of immunotherapy resistance, with an in-depth characterization of the importance of the myeloid cellular component in the tumor microenvironment for preventing recurrence.

Efficient targeting of regulatory T cells in the tumor microenvironment has had limited success to date, but Francesca Zammarchi et al provide promising pre-clinical evidence that a CD25-directed antibody-drug conjugate may efficiently deplete immunosuppressive cells and strongly synergize with checkpoint inhibitors, allowing for robust disease control.

In an outside-of-the-box approach to improve yields for chimeric antigen receptor T cell manufacturing, Andrea Schmidts and colleagues developed artificial antigen presenting cells that improve over conventional bead-based reagents for T cell activation in several aspects. Of note, Schmidts et al modified the artificial antigen-presenting cells to disrupt expression of the lentiviral binding receptor and avoid “vector sink” during transduction using CRISPR-Cas9—the technology honored with the 2020 Nobel Prize in chemistry.

Immunotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting is an important and ongoing area of research. Although the trial of nivolumab and ipilimumab prior to surgery for resectable non-small cell lung cancer reported by Joshua E Reuss and colleagues was prematurely terminated due to toxicity, the findings underscore the importance of future research, especially on biomarkers to predict response to treatment.

Finally, in addition to the excellent original research in this month’s digest, it’s a pleasure to spotlight a review from the recently completed series on immune checkpoints beyond PD-1. If you have not read these outstanding reviews, be sure to browse the entire collection, in addition to the overview of TIGIT in immunotherapy highlighted in this month’s digest.
Warm regards,

Pedro J. Romero, MD
Editor-in-Chief, Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer


JITC Editor Picks

Lack of myeloid cell infiltration as an acquired resistance strategy to immunotherapy

Elham Beyranvand Nejad, Camilla Labrie, Ziena Abdulrahman, Marit J van Elsas, Eva Rademaker, Jan Willem Kleinovink, Tetje C van der Sluis, Suzanne van Duikeren, Amina F A.S Teunisse, Aart G Jochemsen, Jan Oosting, Noel F C C de Miranda, Thorbald Van Hall, Ramon Arens, Sjoerd H van der Burg
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e001326 (1 September 2020)
Research

Summary:

Several mechanisms have been described for immunotherapy resistance, including low antigen load, antigen processing and presentation defects, T cell exclusion, and an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment characterized by an abundance of myeloid suppressor cells, regulatory T cells, and expression of immune checkpoints. Using a mouse model of local tumor recurrence and resistance following vaccine-induced regression, Elham Beyranvand Nejad and colleagues demonstrate an important role for myeloid cell infiltration in response to immunotherapy. In mice with established TC-1 tumors, therapeutic subcutaneous vaccination at the base of the tail with the human papillomavirus E743-77 synthetic long peptide and the toll-like receptor 9 agonist CpG is curative, whereas vaccination in the contralateral flank induces initial regression followed by recurrence. Antigen expression was maintained, and although almost all intratumoral CD8+ T cells expressed PD-1, recurrence could not be prevented by checkpoint blockade at any time-point. Leucocyte infiltration within recurrent tumors was reduced and altered in composition with almost no CD8+ T cells and an increased percentage of type 1 cytokine-producing CD4+ T cells. Cytoplasmic and nuclear beta-catenin expression was roughly twofold higher in the stroma of recurrent tumors and TGF-beta expression was increased in cells surrounding the tumor. The composition of intratumoral myeloid cells was shifted away from inflammatory (Ly6Chigh) MHC class II+ myeloid cells, tumor associated macrophages (Ly6Clow cells) and neutrophils (Ly6G+) in regressed tumors in favor of non-inflammatory Ly6ClowF4/80hi/low cells in recurrent tumors. Notably, recurrent TC-1 tumor cells isolated at the time of the relapse did not respond to vaccination when injected into naïve hosts. Tumors originating from reinjected recurrent tumor cells had low numbers of CD45+ tumor-infiltrating leukocytes and dramatically reduced myeloid cell content, including fewer CD11b+, matured (MHC class II+) and inflammatory (Ly6Chigh) cells, as well as CD11b+F4/80+iNos+ (M1-type) macrophages and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. When combined with cisplatin, however, vaccination led to an increased CD45+ immune cell infiltration in the reinjected TC-1 recurrent tumors, with full regression in the majority of mice and significantly improved survival. This finding further emphasizes the importance of tumor-infiltrating innate immune cells during immunotherapy.

CD25-targeted antibody–drug conjugate depletes regulatory T cells and eliminates established syngeneic tumors via antitumor immunity

Francesca Zammarchi, Karin Havenith, Francois Bertelli, Balakumar Vijayakrishnan, Simon Chivers, Patrick H van Berkel
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e000860  (10 September 2020)

Research

Summary:

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play key roles in generating an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, and attempts to deplete or block Tregs for cancer immunotherapy have had limited success. Francesca Zammarchi et al reasoned that camidanlumab tesirine, an anti-CD25 antibody-drug conjugate with activity against lymphoma, may have antitumor activity through depletion of CD25-expressing Tregs. Because the antibody component of camidanlumab tesirine does not cross react with mouse CD25, Zammarchi and colleagues generated an anti-murine CD25-ADC by conjugating the well-defined rat mAb PC61 to tesirine. In two syngeneic models of CD25-negative colon cancer (MC38 and CT26), CD25-ADC had strong, dose-dependent, and durable antitumor activity against established tumors. Furthermore, strong synergy was observed for suboptimal doses of CD25-ADC combined with anti-PD-1 antibody. New tumors did not develop upon rechallenge after CD25-ADC monotherapy or in combination with anti-PD-1. The activity of CD25-ADC required CD8+ T cells. In longitudinal T cell immunophenotype studies, one single dose of CD25-ADC, either alone or in combination with anti-PD-1, led to robust and durable depletion of intratumoral Tregs through 11 days after administration, while maintaining levels of CD8+ effector T cells. CD25-ADC treatment also reduced the number of circulating Tregs, but the effect was not durable, with values returning to control levels by day 11 post dose. Circulating CD8+ effector T cell levels were not affected by CD25-ADC treatment. No significant body weight loss or clinical observations were recorded in any treatment group. A phase I trial (NCT03621982) of camidanlumab tesirine in patients with selected advanced solid tumors is ongoing.

Cell-based artificial APC resistant to lentiviral transduction for efficient generation of CAR-T cells from various cell sources

Andrea Schmidts, Leah C Marsh, Ambike A Srivastava, Amanda A Bouffard, Angela C Boroughs, Irene Scarfò, Rebecca C Larson, Felipe Bedoya, Bryan D Choi, Matthew J Frigault, Stefanie R Bailey, Mark B Leick, Sonika Vatsa, Michael C Kann, Michelle S Prew, Benjamin P Kleinstiver, J Keith Joung, Marcela V Maus
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e000990 (7 September 2020)
Research

Summary:

High manufacturing costs and variable yields is a major barrier to broader use of engineered T cell therapies. To improve over traditional manufacturing approaches making use of soluble or bead-bound antibodies against CD3 and CD28 along with IL-2 to activate CAR T cells, Andrea Schmidts et al developed artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPCs) with genetically encoded T cell stimulation and costimulation as well as disrupted expression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor to prevent lentiviral entry. The transduction efficiency of a second generation 4-1BB-based CAR (akin to one of the approved products) into primary human T cells was nearly equivalent for aAPCs compared to the bead approach and CD8+ T cells were preferentially expanded over CD4+ T cells. Target cell lysis in vitro was effectively identical between CAR T cells generated with aAPCs and bead-based approaches, and comparable levels of antigen-specific interferon gamma production was observed in culture supernatants. In vivo, the aAPC-generated CAR T cells effectively cleared high tumor burdens in a xenograft mouse model of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Notably, when using peripheral blood mononuclear cells containing, on average, 11% monocytes, as starting material, transduction efficiency for the CAR was twofold higher with the aAPCs compared to beads, resulted in a twofold higher yield. The findings merit further investigation of aAPCs as an “off-the shelf” simple more cost-efficient manufacturing procedure for CAR T cells.

Neoadjuvant nivolumab plus ipilimumab in resectable non-small cell lung cancer

Joshua E Reuss, Valsamo Anagnostou, Tricia R Cottrell, Kellie N Smith, Franco Verde, Marianna Zahurak, Mara Lanis, Joseph C Murray, Hok Yee Chan, Caroline McCarthy, Daphne Wang, James R White, Stephen Yang, Richard Battafarano, Stephen Broderick, Errol Bush, Malcolm Brock, Jinny Ha, David Jones, Taha Merghoub, Janis Taube, Victor E Velculescu, Gary Rosner, Peter Illei, Drew M Pardoll, Suzanne Topalian, Jarushka Naidoo, Ben Levy, Matthew Hellmann, Julie R Brahmer, Jamie E Chaft, Patrick M Forde
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e001282 (13 September 2020)

Research

Summary:

Relapse is common after curative-intent surgery for resectable non-small cell lung cancer and prognosis for recurrent disease is very poor. Previously, Joshua E Reuss and colleagues found neoadjuvant nivolumab monotherapy to be safe and feasible for patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Based on an encouraging rate of pathologic response with monotherapy and promising data for combined PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade in advanced NSCLC, the study was expanded to include an arm investigating neoadjuvant nivolumab plus ipilimumab. The study was terminated early by investigator consensus after a total of nine patients were enrolled. All patients received all scheduled doses of therapy and were fit for planned surgery, yet six (67%) experienced treatment-related adverse events, which were grade 3 or greater in three (33%) participants. One patient experienced grade 5 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after resection, although given the timing and setting of complicated surgery, the fatal ARDS was deemed likely to have resulted from postoperative complications unrelated to study treatment. Among the six patients who underwent resection, two had tumor pathologic complete responses and continued to remain disease-free for more than 24 months after surgery. Pathologic response was significantly associated with pre-treatment tumor PD-L1 expression but not tumor mutational burden. Although the long-term disease-free status for a subset of patients is encouraging, given the toxicity profile, the study highlights a need for the identification of predictive biomarkers that enrich for response for future trials of dual immunotherapy in the neoadjuvant setting.

TIGIT in cancer immunotherapy

Joe-Marc ChauvinHassane M Zarour
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e000957 (7 September 2020)

Research

Summary:

T cell immunoreceptor with immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is expressed in activated T cells, natural killer cells, and regulatory T cells and its two ligands, CD155 (PVR) and CD112 (PVRL2, nectin-2), are expressed by both tumor cells and antigen-presenting cells in the tumor microenvironment. Potent inhibition of both innate and immune cells through the receptor has been demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro, evidence which Joe-Marc Chauvin and Hassane M Zarour describe in detail to make the case for further development of anti-TIGIT immunotherapies. In both pre-clinical models and human patients, TIGIT blockade synergizes with anti-PD-(L)1 therapy to directly enhance tumor-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation and effector function. TIGIT blockade also potentiates NK cell antitumor activity, and emerging evidence suggests some NK cell-mediated helper activity in augmenting CD8+ T cell responses after anti-TIGIT therapy. Several escape mechanisms for TIGIT/PD-1 blockade have been identified, including downregulation of DNAM-1 (CD226) in the tumor microenvironment, and the review proposes novel combinatorial strategies to potentiate the effectiveness of future anti-TIGIT approaches.

Impact of cytokine release syndrome on cardiac function following CD19 CAR-T cell therapy in children and young adults with hematological malignancies

Haneen Shalabi, Vandana Sachdev, Amita Kulshreshtha, Julia W Cohen, Bonnie Yates, Doug R Rosing, Stanislav Sidenko, Cindy Delbrook, Crystal Mackall, Brandon Wiley, Daniel W Lee, Nirali N Shah
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 
2020;8:e001159 (3 September 2020)
Research

Tracking the tail

Alex Friedlaender, Stephen V Liu, Alfredo Addeo
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 
2020;8:e000971 (3 September 2020)
Commentary

A nomogram for predicting mortality in patients with COVID-19 and solid tumors: a multicenter retrospective cohort study

Chao Liu, Li Li, Kehan Song, Zhi-Ying Zhan, Yi Yao, Hongyun Gong, Yuan Chen, Qun Wang, Xiaorong Dong, Zhibin Xie, Chun-Quan Ou, Qinyong Hu, Qibin Song
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 
2020;8:e001314 (6 September 2020)
Research

A new role for circulating T follicular helper cells in humoral response to anti-PD-1 therapy

Santiago Sánchez-Alonso, Giulia Setti-Jerez, Montserrat Arroyo, Tathiana Hernández, Mª Inmaculada Martos, Jose Miguel Sánchez-Torres, Ramon Colomer, Almudena R Ramiro, Arantzazu Alfranca
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e001187  (7 September 2020)
Research

Fc-gamma-RIIB engagement drives agonistic activity of Fc-engineered alpha-OX40 antibody to stimulate human tumor-infiltrating T cells

Lucia Campos Carrascosa, Adriaan A van Beek, Valeska de Ruiter, Michail Doukas, Jie Wei, Timothy S Fisher, Keith Ching, Wenjing Yang, Karlijn van Loon, Patrick P C Boor, Yannick S Rakké, Lisanne Noordam, Pascal Doornebosch, Dirk Grünhagen, Kees Verhoef, Wojciech G Polak, Jan N M IJzermans, Irene Ni, Yik Andy Yeung, Shahram Salek-Ardakani, Dave Sprengers, Jaap Kwekkeboom
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e000816  (7 September 2020)
Research

Immune-checkpoint inhibitors plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy as first-line treatment for patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer

Fei Zhou, Wencheng Zhao, Xiaomei Gong, Shengxiang Ren, Chunxia Su, Tao Jiang, Caicun Zhou
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e001300  (7 September 2020)
Commentary

Efficacy and safety of first-line avelumab in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: results from a phase Ib cohort of the JAVELIN Solid Tumor study

Claire F Verschraegen, Guy Jerusalem, Edward F McClay, Nicholas Iannotti, Charles H Redfern, Jaafar Bennouna, Franklin L Chen, Karen Kelly, Janice Mehnert, John C Morris, Matthew Taylor, David Spigel, Ding Wang, Hans Juergen Grote, Dongli Zhou, Neru Munshi, Marcis Bajars, James L Gulley
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e001064  (8 September 2020)
Research

Differential expansion of circulating human MDSC subsets in patients with cancer, infection and inflammation

Luca Cassetta, Kirsten Bruderek, Joanna Skrzeczynska-Moncznik, Oktawia Osiecka, Xiaoying Hu, Ida Marie Rundgren, Ang Lin, Kim Santegoets, Utku Horzum, Ana Godinho-Santos, Gennadiy Zelinskyy, Thalia Garcia-Tellez, Suncica Bjelica, Bartlomiej Taciak, Astrid Olsnes Kittang, Benedikt Höing, Stephan Lang, Michael Dixon, Verena Müller, Jochen Sven Utikal, Derya Karakoç, Kerim Bora Yilmaz, Emilia Górka, Lubomir Bodnar, Olympia Evdoxia Anastasiou, Christine Bourgeois, Robert Badura, Monika Kapinska-Mrowiecka, Mirjana Gotic, Mark ter Laan, Esther Kers-Rebel, Magdalena Król, Juan Francisco Santibañez, Michaela Müller-Trutwin, Ulf Dittmer, Ana Espada de Sousa, Günes Esendagli, Gosse Adema, Karin Loré, Elisabeth Ersvær, Viktor Umansky, Jeffrey W Pollard, Joanna Cichy, Sven Brandau
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 
2020;8:e001223 (8 September 2020)
Research

BRAF inhibitor resistance of melanoma cells triggers increased susceptibility to natural killer cell-mediated lysis

Alexandra Frazao, Louise Rethacker, Géraldine Jeudy, Marina Colombo, Eric Pasmant, Marie-Françoise Avril, Antoine Toubert, Helene Moins-Teisserenc, Marie Roelens, Sophie Dalac, Eve Maubec, Anne Caignard
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e000275  (9 September 2020)
Research

CyTOF mass cytometry reveals phenotypically distinct human blood neutrophil populations differentially correlated with melanoma stage

Yanfang Peipei Zhu, Tobias Eggert, Daniel J Araujo, Pandurangan Vijayanand, Christian Hermann Ottensmeier, Catherine C Hedrick
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e000473  (9 September 2020)
Research

Complete response to avelumab and IL-15 superagonist N-803 with Abraxane in Merkel cell carcinoma: a case study

Leylah Drusbosky, Chaitali Nangia, Andrew Nguyen, Christopher Szeto, Yulia Newton, Patricia Spilman, Sandeep Bobby Reddy
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e001098  (10 September 2020)
Case Report

Persistent anti-NY-ESO-1-specific T cells and expression of differential biomarkers in a patient with metastatic gastric cancer benefiting from combined radioimmunotherapy treatment: a case report

Maysaloun Merhi, Afsheen Raza, Varghese Philipose Inchakalody, Kodappully S Siveen, Deepak Kumar, Fairooz Sahir, Sarra Mestiri, Shereena Hydrose, Niloofar Allahverdi, Munir Jalis, Allan Relecom, Lobna Al Zaidan, Mohamed Sir Elkhatim Hamid, Mai Mostafa, Abdul Rehman Zar Gul, Shahab Uddin, Mohammed Al Homsi, Said Dermime
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e001278  (10 September 2020)
Case Report

LAG-3: from molecular functions to clinical applications

Takumi Maruhashi, Daisuke Sugiura, Il-mi Okazaki, Taku Okazaki
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e001014  (13 September 2020)
Review

Identification of dual positive CD19+/CD3+ T cells in a leukapheresis product undergoing CAR transduction: a case report

Liora Schultz, Shabnum Patel, Kara Lynn Davis, Sneha Ramakrishna, Bita Sahaf, Neehar Bhatia, Christina Baggott, Courtney Erickson, Robbie G Majzner, Jean Oak, Alice Bertaina, Crystal Mackall, Steven Feldman
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 
2020;8:e001073  (14 September 2020)
Case Report

Leukemia escape in immune desert: intraocular relapse of pediatric pro-B-ALL during systemic control by CD19-CAR T cells

Semjon Willier, Johannes Raedler, Franziska Blaeschke, Dana Stenger, Montserrat Pazos Escudero, Florian Jurgeleit, Thomas G P Grünewald, Vera Binder, Irene Schmid, Michael H Albert, Armin Wolf, Tobias Feuchtinger
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 
2020;8:e001052 (16 September 2020)
Case Report

Neoantigen-specific CD4+ T-cell response is critical for the therapeutic efficacy of cryo-thermal therapy

Peng Peng, Hongming Hu, Ping Liu, Lisa X Xu
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 
2020;8:e000421 (16 September 2020)
Research

Modulating TNF-alpha activity allows transgenic IL15-Expressing CLL-1 CAR T cells to safely eliminate acute myeloid leukemia

Pinar Ataca Atilla, Mary K McKenna, Haruko Tashiro, Madhuwanti Srinivasan, Feiyan Mo, Norihiro Watanabe, Brian Wesley Simons, Alexandra McLean Stevens, Michele S Redell, Helen E Heslop, Maksim Mamonkin, Malcolm K Brenner, Erden Atilla
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 
2020;8:e001229 (16 September 2020)
Research

Enhanced lipid biosynthesis in human tumor-induced macrophages contributes to their protumoral characteristics

Katrin Rabold, Anna Aschenbrenner, Christoph Thiele, Collins K Boahen, Alexander Schiltmans, Johannes W A Smit, Joachim L Schultze, Mihai G Netea, Gosse J Adema, Romana T Netea-Maier
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer
 
2020;8:e000638  (17 September 2020)
Research

Targeted delivery of miR-99b reprograms tumor-associated macrophage phenotype leading to tumor regression

Liang Wang, Yi-Yang Hu, Jun-Long Zhao, Fei Huang, Shi-Qian Liang, Lei Dong, Yan Chen, Heng-Chao Yu, Jian Bai, Jia-Meng Yang, Jie-Yi Fan, Lei Feng, San-Zhong Li, Hua Han, Hong-Yan Qin
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e000517  (18 September 2020)
Research

Adoptive transfer of zoledronate-expanded autologous V-gamma-9V-delta-2 T-cells in patients with treatment-refractory non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicenter, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study

Kazuhiro Kakimi, Hirokazu Matsushita, Keita Masuzawa, Takahiro Karasaki, Yukari Kobayashi, Koji Nagaoka, Akihiro Hosoi, Shinnosuke Ikemura, Kentaro Kitano, Ichiro Kawada, Tadashi Manabe, Tomohiro Takehara, Toshiaki Ebisudani, Kazuhiro Nagayama, Yukio Nakamura, Ryuji Suzuki, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Masaaki Sato, Kenzo Soejima, Jun Nakajima
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e001185 (18 September 2020)
Research

Differential gene expression of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T cells in advanced versus early-stage colorectal cancer and identification of a gene signature of poor prognosis

Reem Saleh, Varun Sasidharan Nair, Salman M Toor, Rowaida Z Taha, Khaled Murshed, Mahmood Al-Dhaheri, Mahwish Khawar, Mahir Abdulla Petkar, Mohamed Abu Nada, Fares Al-Ejeh, Eyad Elkord
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e001294  (18 September 2020)
Research

Avelumab for advanced Merkel cell carcinoma in the Netherlands: a real-world cohort

Sonja Levy, Maureen J B Aarts, Ferry A L M Eskens, Kristien B M I Keymeulen, Lukas B Been, Dirk Grünhagen, Alexander van Akkooi, Mathilde Jalving, Margot E T Tesselaar
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e001076  (18 September 2020)
Research

Therapeutic efficacy and safety of a human fusion construct targeting the TWEAK receptor Fn14 and containing a modified granzyme B

Ana Alvarez de Cienfuegos, Lawrence H Cheung, Khalid A Mohamedali, Timothy G Whitsett, Jeffrey A Winkles, Walter N Hittelman, Michael G Rosenblum
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 
2020;8:e001138 (21 September 2020)
Research

Poly-IC enhances the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy by promoting T cell tumor infiltration

Hussein Sultan, Juan Wu, Valentyna I Fesenkova, Aaron E Fan, Diane Addis, Andres M Salazar, Esteban Celis
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 
2020;8:e001224 (21 September 2020)
Research

Expression and clinical significance of PD-L1, B7-H3, B7-H4 and VISTA in craniopharyngioma

Yuelong Wang, Jiaojiao Deng, Lin Wang, Tingyue Zhou, Jinlong Yang, Zerong Tian, Jinhao Yang, Hongxu Chen, Xin Tang, Shasha Zhao, Liangxue Zhou, Aiping Tong, Jianguo Xu
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 2020;8:e000406 (21 September 2020)
Research

Malignant cell-specific CXCL14 promotes tumor lymphocyte infiltration in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

Anuraag Parikh, JuneHo Shin, William Faquin, Derrick T Lin, Itay Tirosh, John B Sunwoo, Sidharth V Puram
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 
2020;8:e001048 (21 September2020)
Research

Host genetics and tumor environment determine the functional impact of neutrophils in mouse tumor models

Marit van Elsas, Jan Willem Kleinovink, Matthijs Moerland, Gary Feiss, Guillaume Beyrend, Ramon Arens, Hailiang Mei, Peter H Nibbering, Silvana M Jirka, Thorbald van Hall, Sjoerd H van der Burg
Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer 
2020;8:e000877 (30 September 2020)
Research

SITC Members Receive 50 Percent Submission Discount in 2020

*As a way to thank the SITC members who work tirelessly to advance the science and improve the lives of cancer patients, SITC will provide members with a 50 percent discount on processing fees for all JITC articles accepted in 2020.