There is strong evidence that immunotherapy-mediated tumor rejection can be driven by tumor-specific CD8+ T cells reinvigorated to recognize neoantigens derived from tumor somatic mutations. Thus, the frequencies or characteristics of tumor-reactive, mutation-specific CD8+ T cells could be used as biomarkers of an anti-tumor response. However, such neoantigen-specific T cells are difficult to reliably identify due to their low frequency in peripheral blood and wide range of potential epitope specificities. This study demonstrates that neoantigen-specific T cells can be detected in peripheral blood in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients during anti-PD-L1 therapy. Patients with an objective response had an enrichment of neoantigen-reactive T cells and these cells showed a phenotype that differed from patients without a response. These findings suggest the ex vivo identification, characterization, and longitudinal follow-up of rare tumor-specific differentiated effector neoantigen-specific T cells may be useful in predicting response to checkpoint blockade.Authors: Michael Fehlings, Suchit Jhunjhunwala, Marcin Kowanetz, William E. O'Gorman, Priti S. Hegde, Hermi Sumatoh, Boon Heng Lee, Alessandra Nardin, Etienne Becht, Susan Flynn, Marcus Ballinger, Evan W. Newell and Mahesh YadavPublished as a research article in the Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer (2019) 7:249.#Biomarkers#ImmuneLandscape#Tcells#TumorMicroenvironment#LungCancers#NonSmallCellLungCancer#Atezolizumab#ImmuneCheckpointInhibitors#JournalArticle#JournalforImmunoTherapyofCancer#Clinician#Oncologist#Researcher#2019
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